Dating organ South Wales

South-East Wales; South-West Wales ... Dating apps are essentially the most up-to-date version of it, and you could even call Love Island a version of speed dating on steroids. ... Derick Raymond ... Soon dating, the couple enjoyed a whirlwind romance – moving in together within six months and having a baby girl in 1997. Finally, during a romantic holiday in Cyprus in 2003, they discussed ... Oil lamps dating back 300 years are among items damaged at a break-in at a rural church. Detectives unearth scores of church thefts dating back 10 years. ... which would once have marked the spot where a holy person’s organ was interred. ... south Wales and Gloucestershire have also ... Dating back to 17th century Wales, ornately carved spoons, known as lovespoons, were traditionally made from a single piece of wood by a suitor to show his affection to his loved one. The decorative carvings have various meanings — from an anchor meaning 'I desire to settle down' to an intricate vine meaning 'love grows.' Another New South Wales wonder to see are the Liesegang Rings in Bouddi National Park, lovely sedimentary rocks with rings with several shades of brown. It almost looks as if Mother Nature has left her fingerprints on her fine piece of work! Although how these rings appear have not fully been discovered, they occur frequently in sedimentary rocks. The pipe organ in St Patrick's Church is one of Australia's most important historic instruments, dating back to the 1860s. Built in England by Frederick W Nicholson in 1862, it was imported to Australia for the Congregational Church, Prahran and was the largest instrument in the Colony of Victoria at that time. ... New South Wales. The 1558 ... Wales’ health minister Mark Drakeford said: “The latest figures show 14 people died last year in Wales while waiting for a transplant. “The change to a soft opt-out system for organ donation ... Estey organ in a church in Wales UK. The Estey Organ company produced their organs ... Llandaff Cathedral and Chapter House Cardiff South Wales on a sunny Autumn morning Church of St. Mary and St. Cynfarch, Llanfair ... Monmouthshire, Wales, UK – dating from the 12th century, the church has a 14th century tower, seen through ... Coronavirus and Organ Transplantation Some of that work includes facing the challenges presented by the COVID-19 global pandemic. In March of this year, Dr. Gómez and the DTI team created an independent international database called IDOTCOVID to evaluate the impact of coronavirus infection on organ donation and solid organ transplantation. The database functions as a support for health ...

The body on Somerton Beach - a body found in 1948 with a mysterious scrap of paper sewn into a secret pocket.

2020.09.16 22:02 FatFreddysCoat The body on Somerton Beach - a body found in 1948 with a mysterious scrap of paper sewn into a secret pocket.

From Smithsonian Mag
Most murders aren’t that difficult to solve. The husband did it. The wife did it. The boyfriend did it, or the ex-boyfriend did. The crimes fit a pattern, the motives are generally clear.
Of course, there are always a handful of cases that don’t fit the template, where the killer is a stranger or the reason for the killing is bizarre. It’s fair to say, however, that nowadays the authorities usually have something to go on. Thanks in part to advances such as DNA technology, the police are seldom baffled anymore.
They certainly were baffled, though, in Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, in December 1948. And the only thing that seems to have changed since then is that a story that began simply—with the discovery of a body on the beach on the first day of that southern summer—has bec0me ever more mysterious. In fact, this case (which remains, theoretically at least, an active investigation) is so opaque that we still do not know the victim’s identity, have no real idea what killed him, and cannot even be certain whether his death was murder or suicide.
What we can say is that the clues in the Somerton Beach mystery (or the enigma of the “Unknown Man,” as it is known Down Under) add up to one of the world’s most perplexing cold cases. It may be the most mysterious of them all.
Let’s start by sketching out the little that is known for certain. At 7 o’clock on the warm evening of Tuesday, November 30, 1948, jeweler John Bain Lyons and his wife went for a stroll on Somerton Beach, a seaside resort a few miles south of Adelaide. As they walked toward Glenelg, they noticed a smartly dressed man lying on the sand, his head propped against a sea wall. He was lolling about 20 yards from them, legs outstretched, feet crossed. As the couple watched, the man extended his right arm upward, then let it fall back to the ground. Lyons thought he might be making a drunken attempt to smoke a cigarette.
Half an hour later, another couple noticed the same man lying in the same position. Looking on him from above, the woman could see that he was immaculately dressed in a suit, with smart new shoes polished to a mirror shine—odd clothing for the beach. He was motionless, his left arm splayed out on the sand. The couple decided that he was simply asleep, his face surrounded by mosquitoes. “He must be dead to the world not to notice them,” the boyfriend joked.
It was not until next morning that it became obvious that the man was not so much dead to the world as actually dead. John Lyons returned from a morning swim to find some people clustered at the seawall where he had seen his “drunk” the previous evening. Walking over, he saw a figure slumped in much the same position, head resting on the seawall, feet crossed. Now, though, the body was cold. There were no marks of any sort of violence. A half-smoked cigarette was lying on the man’s collar, as though it had fallen from his mouth.
The body reached the Royal Adelaide Hospital three hours later. There Dr. John Barkley Bennett put the time of death at no earlier than 2 a.m., noted the likely cause of death as heart failure, and added that he suspected poisoning. The contents of the man’s pockets were spread out on a table: tickets from Adelaide to the beach, a pack of chewing gum, some matches, two combs and a pack of Army Club cigarettes containing seven cigarettes of another, more expensive brand called Kensitas. There was no wallet and no cash, and no ID. None of the man’s clothes bore any name tags—indeed, in all but one case the maker’s label had been carefully snipped away. One trouser pocket had been neatly repaired with an unusual variety of orange thread.
By the time a full autopsy was carried out a day later, the police had already exhausted their best leads as to the dead man’s identity, and the results of the postmortem did little to enlighten them. It revealed that the corpse’s pupils were “smaller” than normal and “unusual,” that a dribble of spittle had run down the side of the man’s mouth as he lay, and that “he was probably unable to swallow it.” His spleen, meanwhile, “was strikingly large and firm, about three times normal size,” and the liver was distended with congested blood.
In the man’s stomach, pathologist John Dwyer found the remains of his last meal—a pasty—and a further quantity of blood. That too suggested poisoning, though there was nothing to show that the poison had been in the food. Now the dead man’s peculiar behavior on the beach—slumping in a suit, raising and dropping his right arm—seemed less like drunkenness than it did a lethal dose of something taking slow effect. But repeated tests on both blood and organs by an expert chemist failed to reveal the faintest trace of a poison. “I was astounded that he found nothing,” Dwyer admitted at the inquest. In fact, no cause of death was found.
The body displayed other peculiarities. The dead man’s calf muscles were high and very well developed; although in his late 40s, he had the legs of an athlete. His toes, meanwhile, were oddly wedge-shaped. One expert who gave evidence at the inquest noted:
I have not seen the tendency of calf muscle so pronounced as in this case…. His feet were rather striking, suggesting—this is my own assumption—that he had been in the habit of wearing high-heeled and pointed shoes.
Perhaps, another expert witness hazarded, the dead man had been a ballet dancer?
The mystery gets stranger after the jump.
All this left the Adelaide coroner, Thomas Cleland, with a real puzzle on his hands. The only practical solution, he was informed by an eminent professor, Sir Cedric Stanton Hicks, was that a very rare poison had been used—one that “decomposed very early after death,” leaving no trace. The only poisons capable of this were so dangerous and deadly that Hicks would not say their names aloud in open court. Instead, he passed Cleland a scrap of paper on which he had written the names of two possible candidates: digitalis and strophanthin. Hicks suspected the latter. Strophanthin is a rare glycoside derived from the seeds of some African plants. Historically, it was used by a little-known Somali tribe to poison arrows.
More baffled than ever now, the police continued their investigation. A full set of fingerprints was taken and circulated throughout Australia—and then throughout the English-speaking world. No one could identify them. People from all over Adelaide were escorted to the mortuary in the hope they could give the corpse a name. Some thought they knew the man from photos published in the newspapers, others were the distraught relatives of missing persons. Not one recognized the body.
By January 11, the South Australia police had investigated and dismissed pretty much every lead they had. The investigation was now widened in an attempt to locate any abandoned personal possessions, perhaps left luggage, that might suggest that the dead man had come from out of state. This meant checking every hotel, dry cleaner, lost property office and railway station for miles around. But it did produce results. On the 12th, detectives sent to the main railway station in Adelaide were shown a brown suitcase that had been deposited in the cloakroom there on November 30.
The suitcase left by the dead man at Adelaide Station – with some of its perplexing contents
The staff could remember nothing about the owner, and the case’s contents were not much more revealing. The case did contain a reel of orange thread identical to that used to repair the dead man’s trousers, but painstaking care had been applied to remove practically every trace of the owner’s identity. The case bore no stickers or markings, and a label had been torn off from one side. The tags were missing from all but three items of the clothing inside; these bore the name “Kean” or “T. Keane,” but it proved impossible to trace anyone of that name, and the police concluded–an Adelaide newspaper reported–that someone “had purposely left them on, knowing that the dead man’s name was not ‘Kean’ or ‘Keane.’ ”
The remainder of the contents were equally inscrutable. There was a stencil kit of the sort “used by the Third Officer on merchant ships responsible for the stenciling of cargo”; a table knife with the haft cut down; and a coat stitched using a feather stitch unknown in Australia. A tailor identified the stitchwork as American in origin, suggesting that the coat, and perhaps its wearer, had traveled during the war years. But searches of shipping and immigration records from across the country again produced no likely leads.
The police had brought in another expert, John Cleland, emeritus professor of pathology at the University of Adelaide, to re-examine the corpse and the dead man’s possessions. In April, four months after the discovery of the body, Cleland’s search produced a final piece of evidence—one that would prove to be the most baffling of all. Cleland discovered a small pocket sewn into the waistband of the dead man’s trousers. Previous examiners had missed it, and several accounts of the case have referred to it as a “secret pocket,” but it seems to have been intended to hold a fob watch. Inside, tightly rolled, was a minute scrap of paper, which, opened up, proved to contain two words, typeset in an elaborate printed script. The phrase read “Tamám Shud.”
The scrap of paper discovered in a concealed pocket in the dead man's trousers. 'Tamám shud' is a Persian phrase; it means 'It is ended.' The words had been torn from a rare New Zealand edition of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
Frank Kennedy, the police reporter for the Adelaide Advertiser, recognized the words as Persian, and telephoned the police to suggest they obtain a copy of a book of poetry—the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. This work, written in the twelfth century, had become popular in Australia during the war years in a much-loved translation by Edward FitzGerald. It existed in numerous editions, but the usual intricate police enquiries to libraries, publishers and bookshops failed to find one that matched the fancy type. At least it was possible, however, to say that the words “Tamám shud” (or “Taman shud,” as several newspapers misprinted it—a mistake perpetuated ever since) did come from Khayyam’s romantic reflections on life and mortality. They were, in fact, the last words in most English translations— not surprisingly, because the phrase means “It is ended.”
Taken at face value, this new clue suggested that the death might be a case of suicide; in fact, the South Australia police never did turn their “missing person” enquiries into a full-blown murder investigation. But the discovery took them no closer to identifying the dead man, and in the meantime his body had begun to decompose. Arrangements were made for a burial, but—conscious that they were disposing of one of the few pieces of evidence they had—the police first had the corpse embalmed, and a cast taken of the head and upper torso. After that, the body was buried, sealed under concrete in a plot of dry ground specifically chosen in case it became necessary to exhume it. As late as 1978, flowers would be found at odd intervals on the grave, but no one could ascertain who had left them there, or why.
The dead man's copy of the Rubaiyat, from a contemporary press photo. No other copy of the book matching this one has ever been located.
In July, fully eight months after the investigation had begun, the search for the right Rubaiyat produced results. On the 23rd, a Glenelg man walked into the Detective Office in Adelaide with a copy of the book and a strange story. Early the previous December, just after the discovery of the unknown body, he had gone for a drive with his brother-in-law in a car he kept parked a few hundred yards from Somerton Beach. The brother-in-law had found a copy of the Rubaiyat lying on the floor by the rear seats. Each man had silently assumed it belonged to the other, and the book had sat in the glove compartment ever since. Alerted by a newspaper article about the search, the two men had gone back to take a closer look. They found that part of the final page had been torn out, together with Khayyam’s final words. They went to the police.
Detective Sergeant Lionel Leane took a close look at the book. Almost at once he found a telephone number penciled on the rear cover; using a magnifying glass, he dimly made out the faint impression of some other letters, written in capitals underneath. Here, at last, was a solid clue to go on.
The phone number was unlisted, but it proved to belong to a young nurse who lived near Somerton Beach. Like the two Glenelg men, she has never been publicly identified—the South Australia police of 1949 were disappointingly willing to protect witnesses embarrassed to be linked to the case—and she is now known only by her nickname, Jestyn. Reluctantly, it seemed (perhaps because she was living with the man who would become her husband), the nurse admitted that she had indeed presented a copy of the Rubaiyat to a man she had known during the war. She gave the detectives his name: Alfred Boxall.
At last the police felt confident that they had solved the mystery. Boxall, surely, was the Unknown Man. Within days they traced his home to Maroubra, New South Wales.
The problem was that Boxall turned out to be still alive, and he still had the copy of the Rubaiyat Jestyn had given him. It bore the nurse’s inscription, but was completely intact. The scrap of paper hidden in the dead man’s pocket must have come from somewhere else.
It might have helped if the South Australia police had felt able to question Jestyn closely, but it is clear that they did not. The gentle probing that the nurse received did yield some intriguing bits of information; interviewed again, she recalled that some time the previous year—she could not be certain of the date—she had come home to be told by neighbors than an unknown man had called and asked for her. And, confronted with the cast of the dead man’s face, Jestyn seemed “completely taken aback, to the point of giving the appearance she was about to faint,” Leane said. She seemed to recognize the man, yet firmly denied that he was anyone she knew.
The code revealed by examination of the dead man's Rubaiyat under ultraviolet light. It has yet to be cracked.
That left the faint impression Sergeant Leane had noticed in the Glenelg Rubaiyat. Examined under ultraviolet light, five lines of jumbled letters could be seen, the second of which had been crossed out. The first three were separated from the last two by a pair of straight lines with an ‘x’ written over them. It seemed that they were some sort of code.
Breaking a code from only a small fragment of text is exceedingly difficult, but the police did their best. They sent the message to Naval Intelligence, home to the finest cipher experts in Australia, and allowed the message to be published in the press. This produced a frenzy of amateur codebreaking, almost all of it worthless, and a message from the Navy concluding that the code appeared unbreakable:
From the manner in which the lines have been represented as being set out in the original, it is evident that the end of each line indicates a break in sense.
There is an insufficient number of letters for definite conclusions to be based on analysis, but the indications together with the acceptance of the above breaks in sense indicate, in so far as can be seen, that the letters do not constitute any kind of simple cipher or code.
The frequency of the occurrence of letters, whilst inconclusive, corresponds more favourably with the table of frequencies of initial letters of words in English than with any other table; accordingly a reasonable explanation would be that the lines are the initial letters of words of a verse of poetry or such like.
And there, to all intents and purposes, the mystery rested. The Australian police never cracked the code or identified the unknown man. Jestyn died a few years ago without revealing why she had seemed likely to faint when confronted with a likeness of the dead man’s face. And when the South Australia coroner published the final results of his investigation in 1958, his report concluded with the admission:
I am unable to say who the deceased was… I am unable to say how he died or what was the cause of death.
In recent years, though, the Tamám Shud case has begun to attract new attention. Amateur sleuths have probed at the loose ends left by the police, solving one or two minor mysteries but often creating new ones in their stead. And two especially persistent investigators—retired Australian policeman Gerry Feltus, author of the only book yet published on the case, and Professor Derek Abbott of the University of Adelaide—have made particularly useful progress. Both freely admit they have not solved mystery—but let’s close by looking briefly at the remaining puzzles and leading theories.
First, the man’s identity remains unknown. It is generally presumed that he was known to Jestyn, and may well have been the man who called at her apartment, but even if he was not, the nurse’s shocked response when confronted with the body cast was telling. Might the solution be found in her activities during World War II? Was she in the habit of presenting men friends with copies of the Rubaiyat, and, if so, might the dead man have been a former boyfriend, or more, whom she did not wish to confess to knowing? Abbott’s researches certainly suggest as much, for he has traced Jestyn’s identity and discovered that she had a son. Minute analysis of the surviving photos of the Unknown Man and Jestyn’s child reveals intriguing similarities. Might the dead man have been the father of the son? If so, could he have killed himself when told he could not see them?
Those who argue against this theory point to the cause of the man’s death. How credible is it, they say, that someone would commit suicide by dosing himself with a poison of real rarity? Digitalis, and even strophanthin, can be had from pharmacies, but never off the shelf—both poisons are muscle relaxants used to treat heart disease. The apparently exotic nature of the death suggests, to these theorists, that the Unknown Man was possibly a spy. Alfred Boxall had worked in intelligence during the war, and the Unknown Man died, after all, at the onset of the Cold War, and at a time when the British rocket testing facility at Woomera, a few hundred miles from Adelaide, was one of the most secret bases in the world. It has even been suggested that poison was administered to him via his tobacco. Might this explain the mystery of why his Army Club pack contained seven Kensitas cigarettes?
Far-fetched as this seems, there are two more genuinely odd things about the mystery of Tamám Shud that point away from anything so mundane as suicide.
The first is the apparent impossibility of locating an exact duplicate of the Rubaiyat handed in to the police in July 1949. Exhaustive enquiries by Gerry Feltus at last tracked down a near-identical version, with the same cover, published by a New Zealand bookstore chain named Whitcombe & Tombs. But it was published in a squarer format.
Add to that one of Derek Abbott’s leads, and the puzzle gets yet more peculiar. Abbott has discovered that at least one other man died in Australia after the war with a copy of Khayyam’s poems close by him. This man’s name was George Marshall, he was a Jewish immigrant from Singapore, and his copy of the Rubaiyat was published in London by Methuen— a seventh edition.
So far, so not especially peculiar. But inquiries to the publisher, and to libraries around the world, suggest that there were never more than five editions of Methuen’s Rubaiyat—which means that Marshall’s seventh edition was as nonexistent as the Unknown Man’s Whitcombe & Tombs appears to be. Might the books not have been books at all, but disguised spy gear of some sort—say one-time code pads?
Which brings us to the final mystery. Going through the police file on the case, Gerry Feltus stumbled across a neglected piece of evidence: a statement, given in 1959, by a man who had been on Somerton Beach. There, on the evening that the Unknown Man expired, and walking toward the spot where his body was found, the witness (a police report stated) “saw a man carrying another on his shoulder, near the water’s edge. He could not describe the man.”
At the time, this did not seem that mysterious; the witness assumed he’d seen somebody carrying a drunken friend. Looked at in the cold light of day, though, it raises questions. After all, none of the people who saw a man lying on the seafront earlier had noticed his face. Might he not have been the Unknown Man at all? Might the body found next morning have been the one seen on the stranger’s shoulder? And, if so, might this conceivably suggest this really was a case involving spies—and murder?
submitted by FatFreddysCoat to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.09.12 17:53 StevenStevens43 The Messenian trojan horse wars

The Messenian trojan horse wars
Eochu Uairches 633-621 BC:
Eochu Uairches was an Irish high king, that is reported to have left Ireland for 12 years, during the second halve of the 600's BC.
Apparently he left Ireland in a fleet, to wage war and plunder neighbouring countries.
Now this might appear to just be trivial and unimportant legend, but, in actual fact, just this little snippet of information may be more indicative and consistan with the happenings going on in the world around this time.
And this is what i hope to highlight in this article.
Eochu Uairches
Eochu (or Eochaid) Uairches, son of Lugaid Íardonn, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. After Lugaid was overthrown and killed by Sírlám, Eochu was driven into exile overseas, but he returned after twelve years, killed Sírlám with an arrow, and took the throne. His epithet is obscure: the Lebor Gabála Érenn says he gained it because of his exile,[1] while Geoffrey Keating explains it as meaning "bare canoes", because he had canoes for a fleet, in which he and his followers used to plunder neighbouring countries.[2]
Link for photo
Tara stone (biography)
Kaska invasion:
Now, it is likely that were Eochu Uairches went, is connected to a war which began in around 1450 BC with the kaska invasion.
As has already been established on other threads, the Egyptian pharoah Ahmose I, in 1549 BC, led a native Egyptian uprising against foreign rulers in Egypt, and expelled them from Egypt, and continued chasing them northwards, under Thutmose III.
In response to this, the Indo-Aryan Hittite empire came up from South Asia, and down from Northern parts of europe, and made Anatolia the base for their war on Egypt, when, for whatever reason, the Greeks seemingly allied themselves with Egypt, and began attacking the Hittite empire.
The first attack was the Kaska invasion.
The Kaska invasion was conducted by indigenous Greeks/Romans, as Anatolia was the land that is modern day Turkey, and the Greeks would have felt that this land belonged to them.
Early history
The Kaska, probably originating from the eastern shore of the Propontis,[4] may have displaced the speakers of the Palaic language from their home in Pala).[citation needed]
The Kaska first appear in the Hittite prayer inscriptions that date from the reign of Hantili II, c. 1450 BC, and make references to their movement into the ruins of the holy city of Nerik.[5] During the reign of Hantili's son, Tudhaliya II (c. 1430 BC), "Tudhaliya's 3rd campaign was against the Kaskas."[6] His successor Arnuwanda I composed a prayer for the gods to return Nerik to the empire; he also mentioned Kammama and Zalpuwa as cities which he claimed had been Hittite but which were now under the Kaskas.
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Anatolia
Hittite counter attack:
Now, as has already been established, the Hittites hit back, and won the war.
But, in fact, the war would continue from this moment on, probably right up until the time of the Roman empire, if not beyond.
Early history
Tudhaliya III and Suppiluliuma (c. 1375–1350 BC) set up their court in Samuha and invaded Azzi-Hayasa from there. The Kaska intervened, but Suppiluliuma defeated them; after Suppiluliuma had fully pacified the region, Tudhaliya and Suppiluliuma were able to move on Hayasa and defeat it too, despite some devastating guerrilla tactics at their rear. Some twelve tribes of Kaska then united under Piyapili, but Piyapili was no match for Suppiluliuma. Eventually, Tudhaliya and Suppiluliuma returned Hattusa to the Hittites. But the Kaska continued to be a menace both inside and out and a constant military threat. They are said to have fielded as many as 9,000 warriors and 800 chariots.[10]
Arzawa revolt:
The Kaska war would be continued with the Arzawa revolt, when this time, subjugated native Greeks/Romans would rise up against the Hittites.
Involvement in Asia minor
In c. 1400 BC, Hittite records mention the military activities of an Ahhiyawan warlord, Attarsiya, a possible Hittite way of writing the Greek name Atreus, who attacked Hittite vassals in western Anatolia.[53] Later, in c. 1315 BC, an anti-Hittite rebellion headed by Arzawa, a Hittite vassal state, received support from Ahhiyawa.[54] Meanwhile, Ahhiyawa appears to be in control of a number of islands in the Aegean, an impression also supported by archaeological evidence.[55]
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Middle east
Mycenaean collapse:
However, the end result of the Arzawa revolt was not good for the native Greeks/Romans, that found themselves having to flee their homeland and seek refuge on the islands of the Mede, as the Northerners they had tried to remove from Anatolia, had responded with an almost total conquest of Greek mainland.
Final collapse
None of the defence measures appear to have prevented the final destruction and collapse of the Mycenaean states. A second destruction struck Mycenae in c. 1190 BC or shortly thereafter. This event marked the end of Mycenae as a major power. The site was then reoccupied, but on a smaller scale.[62] The palace of Pylos, in the southwestern Peloponnese, was destroyed in c. 1180 BC.[68][69] The Linear B archives found there, preserved by the heat of the fire that destroyed the palace, mention hasty defence preparations due to an imminent attack without giving any detail about the attacking force.[64]
As a result of this turmoil, specific regions in mainland Greece witnessed a dramatic population decrease, especially Boeotia, Argolis and Messenia.[64] Mycenaean refugees migrated to Cyprus and the Levantine coast.[69] Nevertheless, other regions on the edge of the Mycenaean world prospered, such as the Ionian islands, the northwestern Peloponnese, parts of Attica and a number of Aegean islands.[64] The acropolis of Athens, oddly, appears to have avoided destruction.[64]
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Mycenaean depopulation
Fall of Hittite empire:
The Hittites would eventually be removed from Mesopotamia.
But not by the Greeks.
It would be the Neo-Assyrians that would send the Hittites out of Mesopotamia.
Hittites
Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East. The Middle Assyrian Empire eventually emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite Empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Late Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent Syro-Hittite states, some of which survived until the eighth century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
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Asia minor
Scoloti:
However the Hittites would only retreat to the otherside of the Black sea, were they would become known as the Scoloti, and would join forces with the Cimmerians.
Scythians
The Scythians are generally believed to have been of Iranian origin.[6] They spoke a language of the Scythian branch of the Iranian languages,[7] and practiced a variant of ancient Iranian religion.[8] Among the earliest peoples to master mounted warfare,[9] the Scythians replaced the Cimmerians as the dominant power on the Pontic Steppe in the 8th century BC.[10] During this time they and related peoples came to dominate the entire Eurasian Steppe from the Carpathian Mountains in the west to Ordos Plateau in the east,[11][12] creating what has been called the first Central Asian nomadic empire.[10][13] Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
The Scythians are generally believed to have been of Iranian origin.[6] They spoke a language of the Scythian branch of the Iranian languages,[7] and practiced a variant of ancient Iranian religion.[8] Among the earliest peoples to master mounted warfare,[9] the Scythians replaced the Cimmerians as the dominant power on the Pontic Steppe in the 8th century BC.[10]
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Scythia
War of the Medes:
The fallen Hittites would now retreat to the otherside of the Black sea, and turn their focus purely on conquering Greece.
Scythians
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region.[10][14] Around 650–630 BC, Scythians briefly dominated the Medes of the western Iranian Plateau,[15][16]
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Scoloti comb
Welshmen:
Contemporary scholars now agree, that the Scolotis partners in crime, the "Cimmerian", is from the root word Cymru, which is the ancient name for Wales.
legacy
Early modern historians asserted Cimmerian descent for the Celts or the Germans, arguing from the similarity of Cimmerii to Cimbri or Cymry. The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21
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Welsh flag
First Messenian war:
This of course, would all lead to the first Messenian war, when Sparta would expel native Greeks and native Spartans.
First Messenian war
The First Messenian War was a war between Messenia and Sparta. It began in 743 BC and ended in 724 BC, according to the dates given by Pausanias).
The war continued the rivalry between the Achaeans) and the Dorians that had been initiated by the purported Return of the Heracleidae. Both sides utilized an explosive incident to settle the rivalry by full-scale war. The war was prolonged into 20 years. The result was a Spartan victory. Messenia was depopulated by emigration of the Achaeans to other states. Those who did not emigrate were reduced socially to helots, or serfs. Their descendants were held in hereditary subjection for centuries until the Spartan state finally needed them for defense.
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Messenian Greece
Dorians:
Now this is where confusion sets in.
The Trojan horse effect.
You see, the Dorians that invaded Sparta from the North, pushed the indigenous Spartans out to the Medesm and the Dorians assumed the name "Spartans", in the place of the original Spartans.
This means, that because we now have Spartans fighting Medians, people think that the Spartans are the Greeks, and the Medians are the foreigners.
But this is not the case.
The Spartans are actually the Dorians.
The Dorians carried the flag that had originally belonged to the very people they were expelling from Greece.
Dark ages
The earliest certain evidence of human settlement in the region of Sparta consists of pottery dating from the Middle Neolithic period, found in the vicinity of Kouphovouno some two kilometres (1.2 miles) south-southwest of Sparta.[28] These are the earliest traces of the original Mycenaean Spartan civilisation represented in Homer's Iliad.[citation needed]
This civilization seems to have fallen into decline by the late Bronze Age, when, according to Herodotus, Macedonian tribes from the north (called Dorians by those they conquered) marched into the Peloponnese and, subjugating the local tribes, settled there.[27] The Dorians seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan territory almost before they had established their own state.[29]
Link for photo
False flag
Second Messenian war:
One of the biggest mistakes the Spartans made, was expelling the Messenians from their homeland.
I will reveal why shortly.
However the second Messenian war has a great deal to do with why.
You see, the Romans had until now, been completely demolished by the Dorians/Scythians/Hittites/Spartans, whatever you want to call them, but in around 660 BC they re-emerged on Greek mainland and began to fight back.
They actually won a battle, and began pushing the "Spartans" out, but the Spartans did regain their composure and won the war.
At least, for now.
War
Furthermore, the Spartans were able to quell the revolts following the death of the Argive commander. With the aid and support of the Athenian schoolmaster and poet Tyrtaeus, the Spartan Army was able to crush the Messenians and re-establish their helot status. As a result of this war, Spartan society became a strong militaristic power in the Mediterranean in order to control the masses along the Peloponnese and to prevent further rebellions brought on by the helots who later did manage to break away from Spartan rule around 350 BC.[6]
Bakenranef:
Now, do you remember i said that one of the biggest mistakes the Dorians made was expelling the Romans to the Medes?
Well here is why.
The Romans would re-emerge in Italy, according to Egyptian pharoah Bakenranef in 725 BC.
The Romans first arrived in the Bay of Naples.
Bakenranef
,[4] "Perhaps some Greeks, unknown to us, had had close dealings with him; from his reign we have scarab-seals bearing his Egyptian name, one of which found its way into a contemporary Greek grave on Ischia up near the Bay of Naples." Ischia was the earliest of eighth-century BC Greek colonies in Italy.
Link for photo
Bakenranef stele
Ischia:
And archaeologists do agree, that right around this time, Messenaean Greeks turned up in Ischia.
Ancient times
An acropolis site of the Monte Vico area was inhabited from the Bronze Age, as Mycenaean and Iron Age pottery findings attest. Euboean Greeks from Eretria and Chalcis arrived in the 8th century BC to establish an emporium for trade with the Etruscans of the mainland.
Link for photo
Ischia
Latin league:
Now, the Romans are pushing themselves ever so close to the territory of the Latin league.
Latin league
The Latin League (c. 7th century BC – 338 BC)[1] was an ancient confederation of about 30 villages and tribes in the region of Latium near the ancient city of Rome, organized for mutual defense. The term "Latin League" is one coined by modern historians with no precise Latin equivalent.[2]
Link for photo
Cities of the Latin league
Roman republic:
Now the Romans would eventually invade the territory of the Latin league, and create the Roman republic.
And the Romans were not Latins.
As we have already established on other threads, Latin is a language the Greeks got from Dorians.
Dorians, would of course, be part of the Latin league, which has it's capital and Alba Longa, 12 miles outside Rome.
Roman leadership of Latin league
During the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, the Latins were persuaded to acknowledge the leadership of Rome.
Latin league Etrusans, no:
And no, the Etruscans had nothing to do with the Latin league.
The Etruscans allied themselves with the Romans against the Latins, and the Latin league was an enemy of the Etruscans.
Latin league creation
It was originally created for protection against enemies from surrounding areas (the Etruscans) under the leadership of the city of Alba Longa.[1]
Roman republic:
The Greco-Romans were successful in overthrowing the Roman kingdom of the Latin league, and the created the Roman republic, which later evolved in to the Roman empire.
Roman republic
The Roman Republic (Latin: Rēs pūblica Rōmāna [ˈreːs ˈpuːblɪka roːˈmaːna]) was the era of classical Roman civilization, led by the Roman people, beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.
Link for photo
Early Roman expansion
Marseille:
However it was not only Rome the expelled Mycenaeans would turn up.
But also the South coast of France.
History of France
In 600 BC, Ionian Greeks from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille) on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea,
Link for photo
Massalia coins in Gaul
Gaul:
Now, Gaul was a Celtic colony.
It covered most of France and Northern Italy before the Greco-Roman invasion, and expanded to include other parts too, including Greece.
But this period, marked the beginning of a Celtic depopulation from mainland europe.
Gaul
Covering large parts of modern-day France, Belgium, northwest Germany and northern Italy, Gaul was inhabited by many Celtic and Belgae tribes whom the Romans referred to as Gauls and who spoke the Gaulish language roughly between the Oise) and the Garonne (Gallia Celtica), according to Julius Caesar.
Link for photo
End of Celtic expansion
Summary:
Now as we have already established on other threads, the Gaulish language was Gaelic, and Irish people were Gaelic speakers.
Therefore, the Irish high kings likely had a lot of interests in Italy and France.
So if we suddenly had Irish high kings taking off in a fleet of boats around this period, to wage war and plunder, then it would be likely they were going to war with the Greco-Romans in Italy and France.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.02 18:41 StevenStevens43 Amber road(s)

Amber road(s)
Amber road(s):
The Amber road was an ancient trade route that connected the North sea, and Baltic sea, to the Mediterranean Sea
Amber road
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.[1]
Link for photo
Amber road
1900 BC:
The earliest time frame given for the construction of Amber routes in europe, comes from Britannica encyclopedia, and the earliest attestation is 1900 BC
Britannica
Amber Routes, earliest roads in Europe, probably used between 1900 BC and 300 BC
Now whilst the Amber road probably did originally begin as one Amber road, it quickly developed in to Amber routes.
From Ulster, to Wales.
From Edinburgh, to London
From London to France
From France to Hiberia/Iberia
From Oslo or Helsinki to Scicily
From Paris to Russia.
From Russia to Athens.
From Scicily to Tunisia.
Link for photo
Amber routes
Silk road:
Eventually, the Silk road would be built, and finally it would be possible for China to trade with Norway, or even London. Even Gibraltar.
But this is where mystery sets in. We know who built the Silk road.
The Hans chinese built it between 220 BC and 114 BC
Silk road
The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty in China (207 BCE–220 CE). The Han dynasty expanded the Central Asian section of the trade routes around 114 BCE
Link for photo
Silk road
Persian royal road:
And we know who built the Persian royal road in 500 BC. That was built by the persian Achaemenid empire, and persians are descended from Aryans.
Achaemenid empire)
It was maintained and protected by the Achaemenid Empire (c. 500–330 BCE)
Fir Bolg:
But who built the Amber routes which the Silk road connected too?
This brings me to Irish mythology.
According to Irish mythology, there was an Irish clan known as the Fir Bolg which travelled to Greece.
Fir Bolg
In medieval Irish myth, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland. They are descended from the Muintir Nemid, an earlier group who abandoned Ireland and went to different parts of Europe. Those who went to Greece became the Fir Bolg
Men of bags:
According to Irish mythology, the Fir Bolg were labourers whos job it was to carry bags of soil and clay, and the name "Fir Bolg" means "men of bags".
Myth
The LGÉ says that they were enslaved by the Greeks and made to carry bags of soil or clay, hence the name 'Fir Bolg' (men of bags).
Britannica encyclopedia:
According to the Britannica ancyclopedia, the Amber routes were built using logs, and soil.
Though Amber routes built prior to 1500 BC were built using sand and sod.
Amber roads
They were constructed by laying two or three strings of logs in the direction of the road on a bed of branches and boughs up to 20 feet (6 metres) wide. This layer was then covered with a layer of transverse logs 9 to 12 feet in length laid side by side. In the best log roads, every fifth or sixth log was fastened to the underlying subsoil with pegs. There is evidence that the older log roads were built prior to 1500 BC. They were maintained in a level state by being covered with sand and gravel or sod.
Slept out doors:
It would also appear, that the Fir Bolg slept outdoors, on rocky land, which would be consistant with always being on the move.
Myth
The Cét-chath Maige Tuired says that they were forced to settle on poor, rocky land but that they made it into fertile fields by dumping great amounts of soil on it.
Thebes:
Now Irish legend traces the Fir-Bolg as far as Greece, and of course the legendary city of Greece at the time, was Thebes.
Thebes
Thebes (/θiːbz/; Greek: Θήβα, Thíva [ˈθiva]; Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thêbai [tʰɛ̂ːbai̯][2]) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece. It played an important role in Greek myths, as the site of the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus, Heracles and others.
Link for photo
Thebes was a semi legendary port city at the southern tip of Greek mainland
Waset:
However, Thebes is not legendary in the slightest.
Thebes was not even in Greece originally.
Thebes was originally Nubia's capital city in ancient egypt.
Waset
Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean.
Link for photo
City of Zues
City of Zues:
Now, the original name for Waset, translated in to Greek, as "City of Zues".
Toponymy
In the interpretatio graeca, Amun was rendered as Zeus Ammon. The name was therefore translated into Greek as Diospolis, "City of Zeus"
Horus military road:
Therefore, it would appear likely that any Fir-Bolg going to Thebes, were likely going to Thebes in Egypt, as opposed to a semi usurped Thebes, in Greece, and this would make it likely that the Fir-Bolg may have even constructed the Horus military road, which connected Canaan to the lower cataracts of Egypt.
Tjaru
Tjaru (Ancient Egyptian: ṯꜣrw)[3] was an ancient Egyptian fortress on the Way of Horus or Horus military road, the major road leading out of Egypt into Canaan.
Land of Punt:
Now, Thebes would have pretty much grown out of the wealth coming from the gold trafficking trade coming out of the land of Punt.
Land of Punt
The Land of Punt (Egyptian: 📷 pwnt; alternate Egyptological readings Pwene(t)[2] /pu:nt/) was an ancient kingdom. A trading partner of Ancient Egypt, it was known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, blackwood, ebony, ivory and wild animals.
Link for photo
Gold of the North
Gold of the North:
Therefore, it is likely, that the original Amber road, was not given the nickname "gold of the North", because it depicted the colour of Amber, but in fact, because Gold was what was being transported back up the road in the opposite direction to Amber. Gold possibly travelled as far North as what would be modern day Ulster.
Amber road may refer only to goods being transported southward.
Amber road
As an important commodity, sometimes dubbed "the gold of the north", amber was transported from the North Sea and Baltic Sea coasts overland by way of the Vistula and Dnieper rivers to Italy, Greece, the Black Sea, Syria and Egypt over a period of thousands of years.
Hyksos:
Now according to Irish mythology, the Fir-Bolg left Greece at the same-time as the Israelites left Egypt.
Myth
they leave Greece at the same time as the Israelites leave Egypt. In a great fleet,
1549 BC:
Therefore, this would be approximately 1549 BC, as that is when Ahmose I from Thebes toppled the Canaanite Hyksos and sent them back to Canaan.
Ahmose I
Ahmose I (Ancient Egyptian: jꜥḥ ms(j.w), reconstructed /ʔaʀaħ'ma:sjə/ (MK), Egyptological pronunciation Ahmose, sometimes written as Amosis or Aahmes, meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born"[5][6]) was a pharaoh and founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven years old, his father was killed,[7] and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother,[8] and upon coronation became known as nb-pḥtj-rꜥ "The Lord of Strength is Ra".
During his reign, Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.[8]
Link for photo
Ahmose I
Hiberia/Iberia
So, following Irish legend, the Fir-Bolg leave Thebes around 1549 BC, and sail to Iberia in a great fleet.
Iberia is of course the land of modern day Gibraltar, Portugal, Spian, and southern parts of France.
Iberia
The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən/,[a] also known as Iberia,[b] is located in the southwest corner of Europe, defining the westernmost edge of Eurasia. The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory, as well as a small area of Southern France, Andorra and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
Link for photo
Iberia
Hiberia:
Of course, "Hiberia", is the etymological root for "Iberia".
Greek name
The word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originating in the Ancient Greek
Hiberians:
The Romans referred to inhabitants of this land, as "Hiberians".
Roman names
The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians". This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus. Hiber (Iberian) was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro.[5
Hibernia:
And of course, Hibernia was the old name for Ireland.
Hibernia
Hibernia [(h)ɪˈbɛr.n̪i.a] is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland.
Link for photo
Hibernia
Great conspiracy of 367 AD:
Of course, any "Scotti" that fought alongside the Irish contingent of the Germanic unification during the uprisings against the Roman empire in 367 ad, would have been "Hibernians".
The conspiracy
In the winter of 367, the Roman garrison on Hadrian's Wall rebelled, and allowed Picts from Caledonia to enter Britannia. Simultaneously, Attacotti, the Scotti from Hibernia, and Saxons from Germania landed in what might have been coordinated and pre-arranged[citation needed] waves on the island's mid-western and southeastern borders, respectively. Franks and Saxons also landed in northern Gaul.
Ancient order of Hibernians:
Therefore, the Ancient order of Hibernians, likely pre-dates the 1836 foundations in new york, after the plantations of Ulster, and is a bit more ancient than that.
Ancient order of Hibernians
The Ancient Order of Hibernians (AOH; Irish: Ord Ársa na nÉireannach[1][2]) is an Irish Catholic fraternal organization. Members must be male, Catholic, and either born in Ireland or of Irish descent. Its largest membership is now in the United States, where it was founded in New York City in 1836.
Link to photo
Ancient order of Hibernians
Hiberno-phobia:
Now i am not saying that the Amber routes were built by the Irish. I am sure there were more people than that involved.
But there may be evidence to suggest that the Fir-Bolg were at least a little bit involved in something like this.
Though i would argue it is more likely that they went to Thebes in Waset, rather than Thebes in Greece.
But to say that the Fir-Bolg definitely had no part in this, and all this was built by ancient Greek Thebans, may be simply usurpation, or, Hiberno-phobia.
Hiberno-phobia
Anti-Irish sentiment, also called Hibernophobia, may refer to or include oppression, persecution, discrimination, or hatred of Irish people as an ethnic group or nation, whether directed against the island of Ireland in general or against Irish emigrants and their descendants in the Irish diaspora.
Link for photo.jpg)
Anti-irish sentiment
Slaine mac Dela:
According to Hibernian legend, Slaine mac Dela, is the first high king of Ireland, after the return of the Fir-Bolg
Return to Ireland
Sláine (Sláinge, Slánga), son of Dela, of the Fir Bolg was the legendary first High King of Ireland, who cleared the forest around Brú na Bóinne.[1] He reportedly came ashore at Wexford Harbour at the mouth of the River Slaney.
1514-1513 BC:
The date given for this return, is 1514 BC
1514bc
Summary:
So the timing is perfect.
Calcolithic:
And the AOH catholic society, likely pre-dates Catholicism, and is likely Calcolithic.
Calcolithic
The Chalcolithic (English: /ˌkælkəˈlɪθɪk/),[1] a name derived from the Greek: χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and from λίθος líthos, "stone)"[1] or Copper Age,[1] also known as the Eneolithic[1] or Aeneolithic[2]

submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.08.08 01:38 LearningIsListening A not-so-brief rundown of the letter ‘S’ in Jeffrey Epstein's 'Little Black Book'

Below is a rundown of the letter ‘S’ under Epstein's contacts. Last year, I wrote about letters A-C. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/cpis3n/a_brief_rundown_of_the_first_ten_pages_of_jeffrey/).
I also wrote about letters D-F on July 5, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hlrba8/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_df_in_jeffrey/).
I posted letters G-I on July 13, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hqko0y/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_gi_in_jeffrey/).
I posted letters J-L on July 15, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hrq9bg/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_jl_of_jeffrey/).
I posted letter M on July 20, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/huw0yt/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letter_m_in_jeffrey/).
I posted letters N-Q on July 27, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hyudbz/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letters_nq_in_jeffrey/). There are some misspelled names. Epstein entered their names like this.
I posted letter R on July 29, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/i0aqxd/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letter_r_in_jeffrey/)
I have bolded some of the more interesting connections and information, but there could be much more that I overlooked. I hope something here strikes an interest in someone and maybe we can get more investigations out of this. Please, if you know anything more about any of these people than what is presented here, post below. I am working off of the unredacted black book found here: https://www.coreysdigs.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Jeffrey-Epsteins-Little-Black-Book-unredacted.pdf
S
Sacco, Amy: Nightclub mastermind behind Bungalow 8 and many other clubs. Listing her list of connections would take too long because her clubs are always hot spots for celebrities and the elite. The NY Times wrote a decent article (https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/14/fashion/the-empress-is-in-amy-sacco-holds-court-at-another-new-york-nightspot.html) about Sacco’s clubs and clientele. Sacco has been photographed with Ghislaine, India Hicks, and Sophie Dahl, all of whom appear in Epstein’s black book (https://www.patrickmcmullan.com/photo/1563479).
Sachs, Jeffrey: Naming all of his titles would be an endeavor in itself. Sachs is a very influential figure who is best known for being an economist, an adviser to the United Nations, and a University Professor at Columbia University. Sachs serves on the Council on Foreign Relations, where Epstein served from 1995-2009. It is unclear whether he was there at the same time as Epstein, although given his popularity and influence, especially in the early 2000s, I would be surprised if he wasn’t around then.
Saffra, Edmund: Billionaire banker and alleged money launderer with tons of enemies who died under very mysterious circumstances in 1999. The official story was that one of his nurses - in an attempt to gain favor with Safra by saving him from danger - intentionally started a small fire in Safra’s home, which soon spiraled out of control, causing Safra to lock himself in the bathroom and suffocate to death. This article (https://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2000/12/dunne200012) does a good job of pointing out that Safra had many enemies, was a shady character, and was absolutely obsessed with security for himself and his family. It seems odd that Safra would allow his security detail (Mossad vets) to leave his home that night. This article (https://www.theguardian.com/theobserve2000/oct/29/features.magazine47) from The Guardian includes a statement from Ted Maher’s (the nurse who was convicted of starting the fire) wife, stating that he was coerced into signing a confession. Elie Wiesel, the author of Night who is also listed in Epstein’s contacts, was a good friend of Safra’s.
Safro, Wayne: Financial advisor.
Said, Wafic: Financier and businessman. Said is the Chairman of a children’s charity called the Said Foundation, where Prince Charles’s former private secretary, Sir Michael Peat GVCO, serves on the board of trustees (https://www.saidfoundation.org/pages/33-trustees-and-staff). The charity helps underprivileged children from the Middle East. Said has also contributed a lot of money to Prince Charles’s The Prince of Wales’s Charitable Fund, which, among other things, is dedicated to helping children.
Sainsbury, Mr Jamie: Descendant of the founder of the Sainsbury grocery chain. Old friend of Ghislaine Maxwell (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8466853/What-girls-frolicked-Bullingdon-boys-Oxfords-brightest-young-women-rose-top.html). James’s sister, Camilla, was married to British MP, Shaun Woodward, for 28 years. Camilla and Shaun are Trustees of The Woodward Charitable Trust, which helps disadvantaged children, women, and families (http://woodwardcharitabletrust.org.uk/portfolio/about_us/).
Salama, Eric: Former CEO of Kantar consulting firm. Also served as a Trustee for the British Museum (2000-2008). Survived a carjacking after getting stabbed last year (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6618395/Government-adviser-stabbed-carjacking-reveals-fine-punctured-lung.html).
Saltzman, Elizabeth: Contributing editor to Vanity Fair and Vogue, two of the three publications (along with Tatler) that continuously show up among Epstein’s contacts. Saltzman is also a celebrity fashion stylist with clients such as Gwyneth Paltrow, Saoirse Ronan, Stella McCartney, and Uma Thurman, the ex-wife of Arpad Busson, who is possibly one of the key players in this pedophile ring (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/cl34ju/arpad_busson_billionaire_businessman_or_possible/). Andre Balazs, the hotelier who also seems to be embroiled in this whole fiasco held a party in 1995. Those in attendance included Ghislaine Maxwell, Katie Ford, and Elizabeth Saltzman (https://www.nydailynews.com/archives/gossip/taming-liz-fortensky-rumors-article-1.686445), all of whom appear in Epstein’s black book. In fact, Saltzman is a long-time friend of Ghislaine (https://www.mintpressnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Mysterious-business-of-the-queen-of-NY-Lon-1.pdf). This article also reveals that Ghislaine was introduced to Prince Andrew by the Duchess of York (Sarah Ferguson), and, even more telling, that Epstein was suspected of having Mossad ties when the article was written in 2000. In addition to all this, Saltzman is the ex-wife of hedge fund billionaire Glenn Dubin (https://www.nytimes.com/1987/09/14/style/miss-saltzman-editor-is-wed-to-glenn-dubin.html), one of the most heavily implicated people in Epstein’s pedophilia and child trafficking ring. I implore you to read more about Dubin (and his wife) in my D-F black book thread (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hlrba8/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_df_in_jeffrey/). Saltzman can also be seen here, sitting next to Prince Andrew in 2010 (https://www.grandforksherald.com/news/world/4780114-Britains-Prince-Andrew-is-stepping-back-from-public-duties-after-Epstein-controversy). The lists of celebrities and well-known figures that Saltzman has been photographed with is unending.
Samuels, Mia: Actually Maia Samuel, former Producer of ABC Primetime (1989-1994). Went on to work for NBC, Bloomberg, and CNBC in various producer roles over the years. Now works as Director, Content Studios for Reuters (https://www.linkedin.com/in/maia-samuel-92172a10). Epstein has quite a few television ties, most notably to ABC news programs.
Sandelman, Jon & Corrie: Jonathan is a hedge fund manager and former Managing Director of Bank of America Securities. Corrie is his wife.
Sangster, Guy & Fi: Son of racing tycoon Robert Sangster, Guy is Managing Director at Sangster Group, which is involved in the Horse Racing industry. He also works as an investment adviser with Hambro Perks, a venture capitalist company. Prince Andrew is a close friend of Guy and his wife, Fiona. Prince Andrew even attended Sangster’s 40th birthday party (https://www.the-sun.com/news/136709/prince-andrews-pals-claims-witness-who-saw-him-with-sex-slave-is-confused-as-he-was-in-club-3-days-late).
Sangster, Mr Ben: Guy Sangster’s brother and fellow racing heir. Long-time acquaintance/friend(?) of the Royal Family. According to this article, the Sangsters are “one of the most high profile society families in London and often hang out with the royals (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-5008073/Robert-Sangster-s-son-marries-Princess-Eugenie-s-friend.html).
Santo Domingo, Julio Mario: Unsure if this is the father or the son. Either way, this is a billionaire Colombian businessman whose company has controlling stock in Bavaria Brewery and is the 2nd highest stockholder of Anheuser Busch (15%). The senior Julio Mario Santo Domingo died in 2011. His son died from cancer in 2009.
Santo, Mr & Mrs M Espirito: Likely the former owners (or high-ranking family) of the Espirito Santo banking dynasty., which was forced to shutter due to charges of fraud, money laundering, and falsifying documents (https://www.cnbc.com/2014/07/30/how-a-portuguese-banking-mess-took-down-a-dynasty.html). Banco Espirito Santo was Portugal’s second-largest bank.
Saud Prince Solman: Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman was a close friend of Epstein’s and met with him many times. Epstein even had a photograph of bin Salman hanging on his wall. The Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia has been linked to the murder of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi, a Saudi dissident who was lured to the Saudi consulate in Istanbul and subsequently killed. The Crown Prince, said to have ordered the murder, and those who were physically involved with the murder, ultimately went unpunished. According to this article (https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/jeffrey-epstein-what-we-know-about-paedophile-businessmans-ties-middle-east), the numbers listed likely belong to the Crown Prince’s father, King Salman bin Abdulaziz, Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia. Epstein’s Austrian passport had a fake name and Saudi address. This passport was to have been given to him by “a friend.” In November 2016, one day before the election, Epstein flew to Riyadh. Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and Amazon owner Jeff Bezos were in Riyadh at the same time, leading some to believe that the three may have met up (https://www.insider.com/epstein-riyadh-saudi-arabia-private-jet-2019-9).
Scerbo, Randall: A female (despite the name) fashion stylist and costume designer who eventually went into consulting. Randall also has credits as a producer and content creator for the Miss USA and Miss Universe beauty pageants.
Schiatti, Gianmarco: Creative director who helped several fashion companies (Gucci, Chanel, Coach, Ralph Lauren, Prada, etc.) with rebranding.
Schifter, Helen & Tim: Helen is a former arbitrage trader on Wall Street, as well as a socialite and a former editor at Hearst and Conde Nast (publisher of Tatler and Vogue), making this the 9000th Epstein-Conde Nast connection. Helen’s father is a businessman and has served as a consultant for the Du Pont Company. She runs in the same circles as Ghislaine Maxwell and has been at several of the same parties (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/helen-lee-schifter-ghislaine-maxwell-teddy-wong-and-news-photo/1169681659). Tim is CEO of LeSportsac, the luggage and tote bag manufacturer. Tim can be seen attending a Private Screening with Ghislaine Maxwell here (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/tim-schifter-and-ghislaine-maxwell-attend-private-screening-news-photo/590659962).
Sebag Montefiore Simon & Santa: Simon Montefiore is a British historian, television presenter, and author of history books and novels. Ghislaine attended the launch of Montefiore’s book, “The Court of the Red Tsar” (https://deepclips.com/clip/3225/exclusive-i-fear-i-saw-virginia-roberts-inside-jeffrey-epstein-s-creepy-new-mexico-ranch-contractor-claims). Santa is his wife and sister of Tara Palmer-Tomkinson, who died of an ulcer in 2017. The Palmer-Tomkinson family is so close with the Royal Family that Prince Charles was named Tara’s godfather. As such, Simon and Santa are good friends of Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/4721868/The-lit-girl.html). Simon’s great-great-uncle was an international financier who worked for the Rothschilds in the 1800s. Siimon and his family are still close to the Rothschilds to this day (https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2008/01/montefiore200801).
Seitern, Christine: Architect.
Sejournet, Isabel de: Belgian arts consultant and wife of French Count Eric d’Hauteville. Isabelle was photographed at an annual charity dinner hosted by The AEM Association Children of the World for Rwanda (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/isabelle-de-sejournet-and-caroline-sarkozy-attend-the-news-photo/157832558).
Shabtai, Benny: Israeli businessman who specializes in watches and telecommunications. Served as Chair for Friends of the Israel Defense Forces (FIDF) and has helped raise millions for the charity (https://electronicintifada.net/content/manhattans-friends-israel-defense-forces/5526). Epstein toured Israeli military bases with Shabtai in 2008 after being convicted of procuring an underage girl for prostitution (https://pagesix.com/2008/04/24/just-visiting/). Shabtai also served three years in the Israeli army and is a former bodyguard for the Israeli ambassador in Paris, France.
Shad, Brenda: Lingerie model who has known Epstein since the ‘90s (https://www.reddit.com/EpsteinAndFriends/comments/hbiwye/epstein_with_lingerie_model_brenda_schad_in_1997/). Almost married Robert Hanson (listed in my Epstein G-H thread) in 1996, the billionaire financier who was accused of raping Anouska de Georgiou when she was a teenager. She first met him when he was dating Naomi Campbell. Pictured with Maxwell here in 2005 (https://www.the-sun.com/news/103520/is-jeffrey-epsteins-unholy-alliance-with-the-victorias-secret-boss-the-real-reason-the-show-was-scrapped/).
Shearer Andre & Angie: Andre is a South African wine importer through his business, Cape Classics. Angie is his wife.
Shore Chris and Maura: Chris is a bankruptcy litigator. Mara is his wife, a licensed lawyer.
Shriver, Bobby: Nephew of JFK, RFK, and Ted Kennedy. His mother, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, founded the Special Olympics. Bobby now serves on the Board of Directors for the Special Olympics (https://www.specialolympics.org/about/board-of-directors/bobby-shriver). Epstein has several phone numbers listed for Shriver’s Special Olympics office in California.
Shriver, Maria: Bobby Shriver’s sister and niece of JFK, RFK, and Ted Kennedy. TV journalist and former ex-wife of Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Shuster, Susie: Suzy is a sportscaster who is married to long-time ESPN and NFL Network anchor, Rich Eisen.
Siegal, Peggy: Famous NYC publicist and close friend of Epstein who helped him out by continuously getting him into elite parties even after he was convicted of procuring an underage girl for prostitution in 2008 (https://nymag.com/intelligence2019/07/jeffrey-epstein-high-society-contacts.html). Her career in Hollywood has been obliterated, although many still secretly think she has been a scapegoat (https://www.townandcountrymag.com/society/money-and-powea29643007/peggy-siegal-jeffrey-epstein-connection/), which once again proves the depravity of Hollywood.
Siegel, William (Bill): President of Chris-Craft Industries (1996-2001), a broadcasting company that owned several television channels across the U.S. Chris-Craft was eventually purchased by Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation for $5.3 billion.
Sieghart, William: British entrepreneur and publisher. In 1986, he co-founded Forward Publishing with partner Neil Mendoza, who serves on the board of several children’s charities and is the current Provost of Oriel College. Mendoza appeared earlier in Epstein’s black book. Check out the letter ‘M’ thread for more information.
Silver, Ron: Silver (1946-2009), was a famous actor who also served on the Council on Foreign Relations. Co-founder of pro-Israeli organization, One Jerusalem, which organized a rally in 2001 to protest Palestinian sovereignty. Flipped political affiliations to vote for George W. Bush post-9/11. As a result, Bush appointed him to several posts, including one in which he worked under Scooter Libby, adviser to Vice President Dick Cheney.
Silverman, Nancy & Henry: Henry is an entrepreneur and private equity investor. Henry helped build Cendant Corporation, which specializes in car rentals, travel reservations, and real estate brokerage services. Nancy and Henry divorced in 2012 after 30 years of marriage. They literally lived around the block from Jeffrey Epstein.
Simon, Bren: Bren was the President of MBS Associates, a property management company. She and her husband (now deceased), support many children’s charities. Bren directs the Mel and Bren Simon Charitable Trust, which works closely with the Clinton Foundation (Haiti), the Clinton Global Initiative, and the Clinton School of Public Service (https://brensimon.com/our-work/). Bren is co-founder of The Family Support Center, a 24-hour child abuse care center. She also serves on the board of advisers for the Indiana Children’s Wish Fund. In 1998, Bren began working with the Mission International Rescue Foundation (MIR), which serves the children and young women of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Bren also created the Centro de Promocion Rural Max Simon, an orphanage that provides a safe environment for boys who have been abandoned, abused, or are living in extreme poverty. She also created the Bren Simon MIR Foundation Girls’ Vocational School (https://cancer.iu.edu/giving/simon/bren-bio.php). Bren Simon used to be a member of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) and Bill Clinton read a eulogy at her husband’s funeral (https://www.ibj.com/articles/67913-simon-sisters-among-top-political-donors-nationwide).
Simpson (Caruth), Sophie: Former literary agent at William Morris Agency. Serves as a Trustee for Rambert School of Ballet and Contemporary Dance.
Sindi, Rena & Sami: Rena is a socialite and daughter of Nemar A. Kirdar, who founded Investcorp bank in the ‘80s with Arab oil money (https://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/27/style/put-on-your-toga-bring-castanets-rena-sindi-is-giving-a-party.html). In 2007, Rena attended a party for Allegra Hicks at Ghislaine Maxwell’s house (https://medium.com/@the_war_economy/investigation-jeffrey-epstein-d2ad68e2e845). Her husband, Sami, is a venture capitalist.
Slayton, Bobby: Actocomedian who admits to seeing Epstein in West Palm Beach a few times over the years. Slayton says that “they weren’t friends,” although he once went to Epstein’s Manhattan mansion for coffee (https://www.miamiherald.com/news/state/florida/article234312632.html).
Smith Osborne: Not enough info.
Smith Peterson, Noona: Public relations officer and consultant who has worked for Tom Ford, Armani, Valentino, Calvin Klein, Michael Kors, and Tod’s. She now has her own PR agency. In 2015, Forbes named her one of the 12 women who have changed Italian fashion (https://www.forbes.com/sites/declaneytan/2015/02/06/the-12-women-whove-changed-italian-fashion/#553827046f86). Noona is married to Enrico Erba, who is a client manager for Giorgio Armani.
Smith, James: Co-founder and CEO of Aegis Trust, an organization focused at stopping genocide in Rwanda. Aegis “enables students, professionals, decision-makers and a wider public to meet survivors and learn from their experiences” (https://www.aegistrust.org/what-we-do/).
Snyder, Maria: Model, designer, artist, and entrepreneur who has worked for the likes of Armani, Versace, Valentino, Calvin Klein, and Karl Lagerfield. Snyder attended a ‘Free the Slaves’ benefit in 2010 where she was photographed with hotelier Andre Balazs, who is mired in Epstein/Maxwell stink, and Brenda Schad, who appears just above (last name incorrectly spelled ‘Shad’).
Soames, Rupert & Milly: Rupert is a British businessman and CEO of Serco, a government contractor that provides health, transport, justice, immigration, defense, and citizen services. Soames and his company is heavily involved in many aspects of government (he is very close with former British Prime Minister David Cameron), and as such, has a huge impact on the public. For example, Serco has been contracted to work on a Coronavirus track-and-trace system for the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) (https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/jun/04/nhs-track-and-trace-system-not-expected-to-be-operating-fully-until-september-coronavirus). Soames’s family is very close with the Royal Family (https://www.popsugar.com/celebrity/photo-gallery/44913948/image/44914915/Camilla-Dunne-Honorable-Rupert-Soames-1988). Prince William served as a pageboy at Rupert and Camilla’s wedding in 1988. Soames is the grandson of Winston Churchill and his brother, Nicholas Soames, served as a British MP from 1983-2019. Nicholas has been accused of being sexist and making inappropriate remarks by several female MPs. Nicholas is also a very close friend of Prince Charles (https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/profile-charless-biggest-buddy-nicholas-soames-royalist-minister-for-food-1466703.html). Milly (Camilla) is Rupert’s wife and High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire. Milly is a Patron/Trustee for Pace Centre, a children’s charity dedicated to providing education for children with sensory motor disorders (https://thepacecentre.org/about-pace/mission-values-vision/), Heart of Bucks (https://heartofbucks.org/committees-patrons/), an all-purpose charity that divvies up money to many causes, several of which involve children (https://heartofbucks.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/hob-annual-report-2018-2019-web.pdf), Action4Youth (https://www.action4youth.org/trustees/), which “partners with government, schools, youth clubs, businesses, trusts and foundations, and others (https://www.action4youth.org/about-action4youth/vision-mission-values/). Camilla is also the daughter of Sir Thomas Raymond Dunne, who served as a Lord Lieutenant of Hereford and Worcester, Worcestershire, and Herefordshire. Her brother, Phillip, has been a British Conservative MP since 2005.
Sobrino, Esperanza: Director of Acquavella art gallery.
Solomon, Andrew: Writer for The New York Times, The New Yorker, and other publications. Member of Council on Foreign Relations where Epstein once served.
Soros Peter: Nephew of George Soros. Works as an investment banker. Soros’s name is circled in Epstein’s black book. It turns out that Epstein’s former house manager circled the names of all material witnesses before he died in 2014 (https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2019/07/jeffrey-epstein-black-book-nick-bryant).
Soros, Peter: Same as above.
Soto, Fernando de: Real estate consultant.
Soto, Jaime & Marina de: No info found.
South, Hamilton: Founder of HL Group, a large marketing firm. Former Chief Marketing Officer for Ralph Lauren. South was a good friend of Carolyn Besette Kennedy (wife of JFK Jr) before she died. He was also a good friend of Lee Radziwill, mother-in-law of Carole Radziwill, listed earlier in Epstein’s book (check out the letter ‘R’ thread), before Lee’s passing.
Souza, Carlos: Works in public relations for Valentino.
Spacey, Kevin: Famous actor who has been accused of sexual assault by actor Anthony Rapp and 14 others (https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/2017/11/07/kevin-spacey-scandal-complete-list-13-accusers/835739001/). He was on the infamous Epstein Africa flight with Clinton and Chris Tucker. Spacey also made this chilling video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZveA-NAIDI), which many think was a direct threat to the Royal Family. As a lot of you know, Spacey was close with the Royal Family and Ghislaine Maxwell. Just last month, a picture surfaced of Spacey and Ghislaine sitting on the British throne (https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/04/uk/maxwell-spacey-throne-gbr-intl/index.html).
Squire, Hugo: See Hugo Swire below.
St. Bris, Edward: International license manager at Pierre Cardin.
Stanburry, Caroline: Reality TV star from the show Ladies of London. Stanbury has also worked in public relations and as a stylist. Ex-girlfriend of Prince Andrew (after his divorce from the Duchess of York) and actor Hugh Grant.
Stark, Koo: Famous photographer who dated Prince Andrew for nearly two years in the early ‘80s. Stark eventually married (and divorced) Tim Jefferies, who was listed earlier in Epstein’s book (check the J-L thread). Stark went on to have a daughter with someone else. Prince Andrew is the godfather.
Starzewski Thomas: Famous British fashion designer whose clothes have been worn by the Royal Family.
Steenkamp, Chris: Not enough info. Possibly the artist responsible for these lovely drawings (https://www.instagram.com/christophersteenkamp.art/?hl=en), but I cannot confirm.
Steiner, Jeffrey: Not enough info. Probably the co-managing partner of MWE real estate group. I could be wrong, though.
Steinkampf, Chris & Nina: No info found.
Stengel, Andrew: Former director of acquisitions for Miramax. Former aide to Governor Mario Cuomo (father of Andrew and Chris).
Stengel, Rick & Mary: Richard is an editor, author, and government official (Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs) under Barack Obama. Richard is now a Senior Advisor at Snapchat and serves on the board of CARE, a charity that caters to women and children (https://care.org/about-us/leadership/richard-stengel/). Mary is his South African wife. Nelson Mandela was the godfather to their son, Gabriel.
Stern, Allison & Leonard: Allison (nee Maher) is a former model and TV producer. Her husband, Leonard, is a billionaire businessman involved in real estate. Leonard founded Homes for the Homeless, a charity that aims to help the financially disadvantaged. A large focus of the charity is children and youth (https://www.hfhnyc.org/). Leonard is also quite the heartless bastard. He announced that he was selling a Homes for the Homeless apartment building in midtown Manhattan, forcing its inhabitants to move out (https://thejewishvoice.com/2019/12/billionaires-nyc-homeless-facility-boots-out-elderly-tenants-before-holidays/). Just to show an example of how all these wealthy people truly do know each other, here is a link with pictures of Malcolm Forbes’s 70th birthday party in Morocco in 1989. Forbes flew out 800 guests (https://www.newyorksocialdiary.com/this-was-then-malcolm-forbes-70th-birthday-part-i/), including Leonard and Allison Stern, Robert Maxwell (Ghislaine’s father), Rupert Murdoch, Ronald Perelman, Barbara Walters, Robert and Blaine Trump, Diane von Furstenberg, King Constantine, Henry Kissinger, James Goldsmith, Hamish Bowles, Gianni Agnelli, Kay Graham, Elizabeth Taylor, Calvin Klein, Oscar de la Renta, Walter Cronkite, Ann Getty, Fran Lebowitz, and more. Not only are these people rich, famous, and powerful, but many of them also appear in Epstein’s black book.
Stevens Michael: Not enough info.
Stopford-Sackville, Charlie &: Charles works in finance and securities. Owner of Drayton House (https://www.northamptonshiresurprise.com/organisation/drayton/) in Northamptonshire, England. Married to Shona McKinney, who I am guessing is the name that got cut off in Epstein’s black book. Shona is a good friend of Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/columnists/article-317052/Marks-married-maiden.html, who is a key figure in this whole Jeffrey Epstein saga.
Stracher Kate: Kate is an artist who went to Oxford with Ghislaine, but claims that she hasn’t seen her since then. (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1365733/How-Prince-Andrew-shared-room-Epsteins-Caribbean-hideaway-busty-blonde-claimed-brain-surgeon.html).
Sundlun, Stuart: Managing director of BMB Advisors, a private equity firm. Son of Governor Bruce Sundlun of Rhode Island (1991-1995). Stuart’s father also served as director of the National Security Education Board (NSEB) for four years under Clinton. Bruce is a great friend of Clinton right hand man (and multiple-time passenger on Epstein’s flight log), Ira Magaziner. Magaziner also appeared in Epstein’s black book (check out the ‘M’ thread for more info).
Sunley, Mr James & Amanda: James is CEO of Sunley Holdings, an investment company.
Sutherland, Harry: Likely refers to the investment banker who is Chairman of CrossInvest, an offshore corporate service company.
Svenlinson, Peter: Venture capitalist and founder of The Column Group. Served as Chairman for several pharmaceutical companies (Aragon, which was sold to Johnson & Johnson and Seragon, until it was solid to Genentech/Roche).
Swire, Sophie: English fashion entrepreneur who established a school for jewelers and gem-cutters in Afghanistan at Prince Charles’s request (https://adventurersclub.org/archives/calendanov2015.php). Co-founder of Learning for Life, an educational charity. She was a Trustee and Chairperson from 1995-2000. Learning for Life has established over 250 schools for girls in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.
Swire, Hugo: Swire is a British Conservative Party politician who served as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 2001-2019. Son of Roger, director of Sotheby’s.
Swire, Jenny: Former Miss South Africa. Fashion director for Wedding Magazine and TV personality. Contributing editor for Tatler, a publication which has appeared more than ten times amongst Epstein’s contacts.
Swire, Mark: Involved in real estate.
Sykes, Lucy Ewen: Entrepreneur, fashion executive, and socialite. Fashion director of Marie Claire magazine. Former consultant for Ralph Lauren, T. J. Maxx, and Tommy Hilfiger. Good friend of nightclub guru Amy Sacco, who is one of the contacts listed earlier in this thread. Lucy and her husband attended a dinner for Prince Andrew at Epstein’s house in the early 2000s (https://www.thecut.com/2019/07/ghislaine-maxwell-the-socialite-on-jeffrey-epsteins-arm.html). Lucy’s husband, Euan Rellie, has been a friend of Ghislaine Maxwell’s for years.
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2020.08.04 15:14 TheOTTMethod The OTT Experiment

Hey what’s up everybody, and greetings from The Shire, My name is MMH, founder of https://TheOrganicMarketer.com and welcome to The OTT Experiment!
So the big question here that the OTT experiment will be taking on is simply this — why pay for traffic that’s already there?
So how do entrepreneurs like us market in a way that lets us get our products and our services and the things that we believe in out of the world without having to run paid ads? In this experiment we will be building social media accounts from the ground up and providing daily actionable steps so you can follow along and see how this thing grows!
So the OTT experiment — OTT being an initialism for ‘Own That Traffic’ is structured around this one simple question “why pay for traffic that’s already there?” Currently we have a facebook group — the organic marketer (official) with — as of today 8 members a podcast account on Libsyn and this brand new account on Medium.com, but that’s all, nothing else. We are going to be launching brand new accounts across all social platforms and documenting as we go. The experiment is designed for you to follow along, with actionable steps that you too can take each day for the next 365 days and we’ll see how this grows!
Oh my days, Isn’t this exciting?
PLUS, we’ll be throwing in some expert interviews along the way to find out what’s working right now!
So, If it’s ok with you, I’d like to take this episode to introduce myself and to tell you how The Organic Marketer came to be and from tomorrow it’ll be all business, I promise!
So here goes — I’m 46 years old, a child of the seventies, I am very happily single (or self partnered I think the term is nowadays thank you Emma Watson) and I live on The Shire in Rural South West England and I love it. I am so incredibly lucky to live here — my house is on a single track road that leads to the crop farmers farmhouse and I have views of open fields to the front and back and yes — a tractor passes by my house most days and again — I love it! It’s such a beautiful place to live and my view is just too good to be working in an office.
So I’ve worked in office jobs for many years previously, when I had my 3 young boys to raise. You’ve gotta do what you’ve gotta do, right? So the kids were in breakfast club by 8am before school every day — because I had to fight my way through traffic to get to the office by the skin of my teeth for an 8.30am start. It’s only like a 5–6 mile journey, but it was a 23 min drive so that’s like that torturous inch by inch style of driving, that crappy kind of commute where you just want to get there — thank the lord for radio and podcasts is all i say! So then i’d work all day, £’s for hours and doing an outstanding job for my employers may I add — have you ever done that — or are doing that now? Giving more to your job than your job is giving you? Yeah well I hear you, loud and clear. So, after breakfast club the wonderful staff walked my 3 boys over to the main school for them to start their school day. After school, at 3.30pm, because my shift didn’t finish until 5.30, the boys were walked back over to the after school club until 6pm. I had 30 mins to run from the office to the car park, fight my way through the same traffic all the way back from work just to get to the doors at 6pm closing. I was always the last parent to pick up my kids.
But don’t feel too bad for them, they loved being with their friends before and after school, playing pool, learning to sew, going on treasure hunts in the grounds — they had an awesome time and learned some great life skills at the same time.
Now, please don’t judge me for that, it wasn’t what I wanted, it’s not how I planned to raise my children, but I was married very young, just 18, and I became a single parent at 28. The boys were 9, 7 and 6 — still just babies — and too young to be going through that kind of mess — but I was in a disappointing marriage and like i said, you’ve gotta do what you’ve gotta do, right?
So here I was with 3 (growing really fast may I add) young men — who also btw are always hungry — they never stop eating — and they needed a constant supply of uniforms, school shoes, bags, vests, pants and socks — trip money, football kits, new trainers, lunch money, birthday and christmas gifts and parties and besides that — i’m not sure if you know this but spoiler alert — three boys need constant entertaining — oh my gosh that’s exhausting, keeping them occupied — take your eye off the ball for a second and you’ve got a broken door or window — or the dog is halfway down the road — or worse, one of them is bleeding because they’ve been swinging off the curtains and the pole has come out of the wall — that’s all happened in my house and a whole lot more, but that’s the joy, right — anyway this list just goes on — my mortgage payments, the bills, more and more food, and you won’t believe the amount of washing detergent you need for the 3 sets of everything these little people need every day — and we’ve always lived next to fields and streams — so here’s some quick maths that I learnt very early on — fields + streams + 3 boys & 1 dog = don’t dress them in white when they go out to play.
But all that stuff just made me stronger and that was who I became — a super strong hardcore badass unstoppable female role model for my 3 young men — I worked hard, I fixed their bikes, I did my own diy, I took them abroad, we had regular day trips across the South West & Wales like to Weston Pier for fish and chips and an ice-cream by the mud. We did theme parks and London and music festivals and the balloon fiesta in the summer — and I mastered every Birthday and Christmas list, apart from the dinosaur request that Santa got one year — however, Santa badass did manage to get one of those toy archaeological sets with little tools to dig and brush your dinosaur eggs out, bravo — christmas meltdown averted!
Was I trying to overcompensate for being both mum and dad? Heck yes, that’s what single parents do. They suck it up and get it done. So to all you single parents out there, listening to this and wanting more for your kids — then you absolutely rock!
But, I’ve done my time and my boys are now men :-) and having the freedom to work from home, without the constraints of school runs, meetings, clubs, sports practice, playdates and all that good stuff, I decided that I had to give the online money-making thing a go. So in 2016 when my youngest turned 20, I promised myself that I would find a way to close the door forever on working £’s for hours jobs and that I was going to become an internet millionaire and be able to buy my own farmhouse on the Shire — well you’ve got to have goals!
Now, with that decision made, I began my research with the same question that everyone wanting to make money online types into google ’how to make money online?’ obviously. And I came across Russell Brunson and Clickfunnels (no idea what that was) — and Jon Mac and Commerce hq — which is all geared around drop-shipping and print on demand super fancy ecomm stores — well this sounds like a good way to start I thought. So I went with Commercehq — The software is amazing and rivals shopify for functionality all day long — but I’ve never been a user of facebook & I very quickly lost a ton of money in fb ads and that was enough for me to realise this was not for me — and also it wasn’t my product (which is what I really wanted to have) and my heart was never really in it. So I did some research for training on how to start a product line and I found Greta Van Riel and the start and scale program. This program is so awesome and I got stuck right in. But that’s me — once I’ve made a decision that’s it — full steam ahead! & so I decided I was going to start a vegan handbag outlet — veganism was trending hard and I’m not a meat eater, so I invested in some premium vegan material, some super fancy eco-lining material with my pretty logo, handbag and leatherwork tools, patterns, and even I made my own tech packs — but wow — handbags are expensive to produce and ship!
I didn’t have the capital for all that but I did have a few meters of pinatex — which, btw, is a super clever invention made from pineapple harvest waste — it really is incredible stuff & I’m always blown away by eco-innovations like this! So what I did was I turned my leftover pinatex into a kickstarter 100 project in January 2020 — which did ok, 20 something % funded, I was quite surprised, but really it was an afterthought business and again — my heart wasn’t in it, so I was pretty relieved that it didn’t take off.
So I went back to the start and scale program — which by now was now upgraded to version 2.0 and I began working on my new project — spf moisturisers and lip balms. Now I’m a red head so spf products are kind of made for my skin type right? But I still had no idea how I was going to sell this — and I’m my ideal customer! — anyways, I was already deep into quotes and labels and logos and I was about to order my first product samples when lockdown came — which I believe saved me falling down another very deep and expensive rabbit hole.
So, during lockdown and believing I was running out of possibilities — I was back to square one — and to be honest I was worried there wasn’t anything left to try — I’d done ecomm and POD and start and scale and my own products, I’d even tried kickstarter…
So I began the search again, but this time I searched in youtube and Russell Brunsons ad for his Secrets Masterclass popped up in front of the video I was about to watch and I signed up immediately. I did the masterclass on Aprli 16th 2020 and through that training, I discovered the one thing that was missing from EACH & EVERY one of my previous projects — marketing!
Hallelujah — there’s hope for me yet!
In fact I didn’t know what marketing really was until April 16th of this year and Russell Brunsons’ Masterclass. I thought marketing was the department that sends brochures out to clients. I knew about advertising because I’d been burned with paid fb ads — but I had no idea what marketing actually really was, or meant even…
Anyways, I’m about to blow your mind and drop some Steven Larsen Quotes on you here, so listen up. I absolutely love this. So Steven Larsen’s definition of marketing is this ‘marketing is the act of changing beliefs with the intent of a sale’ I’ll repeat that for you -
Wow — mind blown!
And his definition of ‘sales is presenting an offer and overcoming objections’ — repeat
again — blew my mind — but he doesn’t stop there, no. His definition of ‘closing is simply logical reasons to act now’ — Genius! Absolute genius.
Now this stuff and this way of thinking gets me really excited — finally this is where my heart is — I was born for this kind of stuff!
Not because I have all the skills, but because I love to learn new things all the time and marketing is this ever evolving situation — which to me is everything I could ask for in a career. It’s as they say — everyday’s a school day!
So at the end of the Secrets Masterclass, Russell introduces the ofa 30 day challenge & I’m on it. Take my money, sign me up now — let’s get this party started!
I registered for the very next ofa challenge and as it turned out, my start date was May 4th 2020 (the best day of the year for all my star wars fans out there), but to my absolute horror, I totally flunked it — I was utterly shocked! But this is where my heart is, and I’m all in and so I immersed myself in all things marketing, Russell Brunson and Clickfunnels and I built myself a framework out of these mistakes, to make sure that when I was ready to retake the challenge, I would be successful. Then I put all that goodness into a free workshop which you can find at ofahackers.com, broken down into 8 simple hacks — and I registered to take the challenge again!
So, I’m redoing the 30 day challenge, following the ofahackers framework — and today is week 2, day 3
And although I am at the very beginning of my marketing and social media journey, I am not new to the world of work and business. I was incredibly lucky to win a scholarship for my private school education — which ain’t no hayride let me tell you! I’ve worked in education, finance, construction, customer service, training, sales and I’ve been self employed now for a long time. I’ve paid for plenty of professional training in the past so as a single parent I could earn enough money to run my family, and run my family well — such as a Btec in business and finance, my financial planning certificates, NEBOSH health & safety in construction and I’ve been to university but none of that expensive, time consuming training that leads to £’s for hours jobs, none of that compares to the $100 I spent on The OFA 30 Day Challenge — yes you heard me — $100 dollars — 30 days — and believe me, everyone really is just one funnel away :-)
and since I discovered Russell Brunson I have become obsessed with organic traffic — partly because I have no budget, yes, but mostly because I’ve always thought traffic is something I had to find, but it’s as Russell says — “the traffic is already there — just hang out where your audience is hanging out”.
So, I’ve spent the past 3 months absorbing every drop of goodness that I could from the professionals and the masters — I have studied and funnel hacked — and as a result of that, I’ve created some really great FREE training — which i’m really proud of — for the social media beginner — or for ANYONE who wants to OWN THAT TRAFFIC! I’ll be dropping that content into a free members area some time in the next week — so that’s something I’m very excited about! and that’s the framework that I’ll be using for this experiment — you’ll be able to find all this good stuff at theorganicmarketer.com very soon and I will obviously be updating and expanding the training area as things evolve — but the one real question this experiment will be addressing — and hopefully answering — is — “why pay for traffic that’s already there?”
So that’s why I am launching this podcast today — as part of publishing week for the ofa 30 day challenge #dowhatrussellsays so we will see how this grows from here!
OK, phew! now that the pleasantries are over with, we can get down to business and I do not want to start this whole thing off with the obvious — facebook, but apart from a podcast account on Libsyn, that’s the only other account we have as of today. So, in tomorrow’s episode we will begin with the exciting stuff — setting up our social media accounts!
Just remember, even though this is an experiment and sounds scientific, I promise absolutely no technobabble, just straight up easy to follow actionable content!
I hope you’ve enjoyed this introduction and I would love for you to join the experiment! Please come and find us on facebook u/theottmethod or search for our facebook group the organic marketer (official) and if you want to know more about the ofa challenge just go to https://ofahackers.com. Thanks for reading!
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2020.07.17 00:57 deadowl Re: Kids Rarely Transmit Covid-19, Say UVM Docs in Top Journal

This was posted a couple of days ago: https://www.reddit.com/vermont/comments/hra1vm/kids_rarely_transmit_covid19_say_uvm_docs_in_top/
The link to the actual article published is this: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2020/07/08/peds.2020-004879
It's kind of a pain to read through 17 sources, but I went ahead and did it because I have some friends that are pretty worried about school reopenings. Note that I'm by no means a medical expert or anything, just someone who seeks to better understand what the heck they've read. Could be wrong on some things.
Begin a long tl;dr from my review of this
Data stating that children are infected far less frequently than adults is very questionable on account of limited testing availability and the studies cited support this. Typically milder symptoms are supported. There were upticks of Kawasaki disease-like conditions among children in reported in some places that coincided with the outbreak of Covid, and it appears most of these children tested negative for Covid-19 with the swab test but positive with the antibody tests. Children also seem to shed the virus for longer than adults.
Generally children in a household seem to start having symptoms after an adult starts having symptoms and most of the studies assume adult transmission to children in these cases on account of chronology. Plausible other explanations: children aren't getting it first because they're home from school, or children may have a longer incubation period than adults. Also, it seems adults can get it from children but there's not a lot of data on it.
There seems to be some possible bias about child-to-child and child-to-adult transmission on account of they cited one article solely for a case of one child potentially exposing 80+ other adults/children (low sample size), and also described another study as showing only one possible transmission from child to adult (child was sick before the adults got sick) when exposure to an adult with Covid-19 was part of the selection criteria for the population of 10 pediatric patients studied. The paper on schools New South Wales, Australia (citation 10) seems to be the only one that would hold any weight, but then you hear about all of these cases in Texas day cares and so it's still questionable until Texas stops being dumb about sharing statistical information. One thing from Texas I've read though is that the children definitely test positive less frequently than the day care workers--don't know whether their contact tracing teams are accounting for an unknown incubation period for children though.
There also seems to be bias on the effect of school closures, and in considering it as mutually exclusive from broader measures taken. It seems they put the argument forward that Covid-19 doesn't spread in schools like we know the flu does. And then the last two citations are mostly just opinion pieces, citation 16's source leaning on citation 17 which has its own ten sources and providing at least one contradictory argument stating that by Italy closing schools with people still working, the grandparents potentially got sick from watching their grandkids (I say potentially, the paper doesn't).
End a long tl;dr
One important thing to note, is that all of this I'm writing is biased by the sources these researchers cited, and not one of them directly studied the negative effects that school closures have on children, and not in comparison to the overall effects of Covid-19. I have been told probably the most important thing you can do, however, is to make sure your kids are reading if you have any, and that it doesn't necessarily have to be books or novels, just words from some place.

From the UVM Today article:

Rising cases among adults and children in Texas childcare facilities, which have seen 894 Covid-19 cases among staff members and 441 among children in 883 child care facilities across the state, have the potential to be misinterpreted, Dr. Raszka said. He has not studied the details of the outbreak.

Citation 1

Statement from the journal article this and the next two citations serves as a reference for:
One surprising aspect of this pandemic is that children appear to be infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, far less frequently than adults and, when infected, typically have mild symptoms.
The actual article uses U.S. data to April 2. The body of data for this period of time is not remotely complete and cannot be used for any analysis based on age unless it's related to hospitalization in some contexts. Testing seemed to be more used as a triage tool for high risk populations than a statistical tool. Nobody in the U.S. had remotely enough tests to cover the population at that point and were rationed to high risk people--high risk people where age is a known factor. In short this data is highly unreliable on account of children weren't being tested, or were being tested minimally due to being considered low risk if acquiring the disease. I believe what I saw on the Vermont COVID dashboard was a stark increase in the number of young people identified once enough tests were available to implement voluntary testing on people who were asymptomatic and perform contact tracing.
Statement of limitations from the discussion section of the article cited:
The findings in this report are subject to at least four limitations. First, because of the high workload associated with COVID-19 response activities on local, state, and territorial public health personnel, a majority of pediatric cases were missing data on disease symptoms, severity, or underlying conditions. Data for many variables are unlikely to be missing at random, and as such, these results must be interpreted with caution. Because of the high percentage of missing data, statistical comparisons could not be conducted. Second, because many cases occurred only days before publication of this report, the outcome for many patients is unknown, and this analysis might underestimate severity of disease or symptoms that manifested later in the course of illness. Third, COVID-19 testing practices differ across jurisdictions and might also differ across age groups. In many areas, prioritization of testing for severely ill patients likely occurs, which would result in overestimation of the percentage of patients with COVID-19 infection who are hospitalized (including those treated in an ICU) among all age groups. Finally, this analysis compares clinical characteristics of pediatric cases (persons aged <18 years) with those of cases among adults aged 18–64 years. Severe COVID-19 disease appears to be more common among adults at the high end of this age range (6), and therefore cases in young adults might be more similar to those among children than suggested by the current analysis.

Citation 2

Conclusions of this study:
Children of all ages were sensitive to COVID-19, and there was no significant sex difference. Clinical manifestations of children’s COVID-19 cases were less severe than those of adult patients. However, young children, particularly infants, were vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection. The distribution of children’s COVID-19 cases varied with time and space, and most of the cases were concentrated in Wuhan and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the results of this study provide strong evidence for human-to-human transmission because children were unlikely to visit the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, where the early adult patients were reported to have obtained 2019-nCoV.
Stated limitations of this study:
This study also has a number of limitations. First, we were unable to assess clinical characteristics of children’s COVID-19 because these data were unavailable at the time of analysis. As an important and urgent issue, clinical features of children’s COVID-19 need to be analyzed in further research. It appeared to have more severe and critical cases in the suspected than in the confirmed group (Table 1), which suggests that some suspected cases might be caused by other respiratory infections (eg, RSV). Second, we did not have information on children’s exposure history, and thus, the incubation period was not examined in this study. Finally, because the epidemic of COVID-19 is ongoing and rapidly evolving, many children who are affected still remain hospitalized. To gain a better understanding of children’s COVID-19, more detailed patient information, particularly clinical outcomes (eg, discharge, transfer to ICU, or death), should be collected in future studies.

Citation 3

The same statement referenced this citation and the first two. This was published February 24th and basically just stated children were infected less and had less severe symptoms based on testing. It should be noted however that they went into full lockdown with just 17 deaths attributed to COVID-19 at the time.

Citation 431094-1/fulltext)

The statement in the article that references this citation and citation 5:
although emerging reports of a novel Kawasaki disease–like multisystem inflammatory syndrome necessitate continued surveillance in pediatric patients.
It appears that in epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic, some children are showing signs of a Kawasaki-disease-like illness. This one's from Britain. Some different statements in this article would make me question whether the false negative rate of children is higher than adults.
During a period of 10 days in mid-April, 2020, we noted an unprecedented cluster of eight children with hyperinflammatory shock, showing features similar to atypical Kawasaki disease, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome, or toxic shock syndrome (typical number is one or two children per week). This case cluster formed the basis of a national alert.

Four children had known family exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

All children tested negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on broncho-alveolar lavage or nasopharyngeal aspirates. Despite being critically unwell, with laboratory evidence of infection or inflammation3 including elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, triglycerides, and D-dimers, no pathological organism was identified in seven of the children. Adenovirus and enterovirus were isolated in one child.

Citation 5

Citation referenced in the same statement as citation 4. Looks like only two of ten children with Kawasaki-like illness tested positive with a nasal swab in Italy, though only two of ten tested negative for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Five of ten had contact with a suspected or confirmed case.
We report a high number of Kawasaki-like disease cases in the Bergamo province following the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, with a monthly incidence that is at least 30 times greater than the monthly incidence of the previous 5 years, and has a clear starting point after the first case of COVID-19 was diagnosed in our area.
Limitations stated:
This study has the limitations of a relatively small case series, requiring confirmation in larger groups. Genetic studies investigating the susceptibility of patients developing this disease to the triggering effect of SARS-CoV-2 should be done. Nonetheless, we reported a strong association between an outbreak of Kawasaki-like disease and the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the Bergamo province of Italy. Patients diagnosed with Kawasaki-like disease after the viral spreading revealed a severe course, including KDSS and MAS, and required adjunctive steroid treatment. A similar outbreak of Kawasaki-like disease is expected in countries affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Citation 6 (PDF)

This one gets a whole paragraph referencing it, though I'm going to use a spoiler tag to simplify a big word. HHC means household contact:
In this issue of Pediatrics, Posfay-Barbe et al report on the dynamics of COVID-19 within families of children with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction–confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Geneva, Switzerland. From March 10 to April 10, 2020, all children <16 years of age diagnosed at Geneva University Hospital (N = 40) underwent contact tracing to identify infected household contacts (HHCs). Of 39 evaluable households, in only 3 (8%) was a child the suspected index case, with symptom onset preceding illness in adult HHCs. In all other households, the child developed symptoms after or concurrent with adult HHCs, suggesting that the child was not the source of infection and that children most frequently acquire COVID-19 from adults, rather than transmitting it to them.
First of all, this citation appears to be a non-final pre-publication, and I've read enough disclaimers stating preprints should not be used to form public policy, though on the other hand this is stating it's peer reviewed so it's somewhat of a middle ground.
Disclaimer provided:
This paper may contain information that has errors in facts, figures, and statements, and will be corrected in the final published version. The journal is providing an early version of this article to expedite access to this information. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the editors, and authors are not responsible for inaccurate information and data described in this version.
It states basically that most children in the sample of families in Geneva had COVID-19 symptoms onset after adults in the household had symptoms onset, and that they can't determine whether there was child-to-adult transmission.

Citation 7

The statement that references this citation:
Of 68 children with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Qingdao Women’s and Children’s Hospital from January 20 to February 27, 2020, and with complete epidemiological data, 65 (95.59%) patients were HHCs of previously infected adults.
From that paper, it says there's been no evidence of child-to-adult or child-to-child transmission:
There has been no evidence revealing the virus was transmitted from children to others.
Looks like they screened late in the outbreak in China, i.e. lockdown measures in place, which can be a confounding factor, and if that's anything like here children aren't typically going out without their parents or being exposed to other people.
We only screened common respiratory pathogens for children who were admitted to hospitals during the later stage of the outbreak.
Like the previous citation, used time of symptom onset to make the determination that adults necessarily had it first. Only three cases out of 68 seemed to have a child whose symptoms appeared before an adult.
Except for 3 sporadic cases, 65 (65 of 68; 95.6%) case patients were household contacts of adults whose symptoms developed earlier and the last confirmed case within the family

Citation 8

Statement given in the paper referencing this citation:
Of 10 children hospitalized outside Wuhan, China, in only 1 was there possible child to adult transmission, based on symptom chronology.
Can someone tell me where they can find where in the cited article this is stated as fact? It doesn't seem like this study cited was trying to gauge symptom chronology, stated that part of its selection criteria was exposure to an infected adult, and additionally offered this:
For the 3-month-old infant (patient 7 in Table 1), her parents developed symptomatic COVID 7 days after they looked after the sick baby without protection measures.
Another interesting statement in the article cited:
Virus shedding in respiratory specimens is longer in children with mild COVID, which will impose a challenge for infection control.

Citation 9

Statement given in the paper referencing this citation:
In an intriguing study from France, a 9-year-old boy with respiratory symptoms associated with picornavirus, influenza A, and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection was found to have exposed over 80 classmates at 3 schools; no secondary contacts became infected, despite numerous influenza infections within the schools, suggesting an environment conducive to respiratory virus transmission.
A sample size of one isn't really anything worth attention.

Citation 10 (PDF)

Statement given in the paper referencing this citation:
In New South Wales, Australia, 9 students and 9 staff infected with SARS-CoV-2 across 15 schools had close contact with a total of 735 students and 128 staff. Only 2 secondary infections were identified, none in adult staff; 1 student in primary school was potentially infected by a staff member, and 1 student in high school was potentially infected via exposure to 2 infected schoolmates.
This one's a bit more interesting.
Nose/throat swabs were taken from one third (n=53) of contacts. Only one secondary case (nose/throat swab positive) was identified in the 168 close contacts. In the same primary school that had this secondary case, 21 close contacts underwent blood testing. The same student whose nose/throat swab tested positive also had antibodies detected through serology testing, consistent with their known recent infection.a
Though yea, some considerations noted:
It is notable that on 23 March 2020 the NSW Premier advised that although schools remained open, parents were encouraged to keep their children at home for online learning. After this date face-to-face attendance in schools decreased significantly and this may have impacted the results of this investigation. Furthermore, school holidays commenced in NSW on Friday 10 April for two weeks.

Citation 11

This concerns the spread of influenza in schools and closure of schools as public health policy for comparison. I'm pretty sure it says spread of influenza is less among school-aged children during holidays/vacations.

Citation 12

Also concerns the spread of influenza in schools and school closures.

Citation 13

Statement given in the paper referencing this citation:
Additional support comes from mathematical models, which find that school closures alone may be insufficient to halt epidemic spread
From the abstract of the cited article:
Based on these data, we built a transmission model to study the impact of social distancing and school closure on transmission. We find that social distancing alone, as implemented in China during the outbreak, is sufficient to control COVID-19. Although proactive school closures cannot interrupt transmission on their own, they can reduce peak incidence by 40 to 60% and delay the epidemic.

Citation 14 (PDF)

The statement given in the paper referencing this citation seems to add a little more from citation 13 if I'm interpreting it correctly.
Additional support comes from mathematical models, which find that school closures alone may be insufficient to halt epidemic spread and have modest overall impacts compared with broader, community-wide physical distancing measures.
I'm having a hard time interpreting this. Aren't broader measures like social distancing and limiting contacts kind of overlapping with school closures?

Citation 15

Statement in the paper referencing this citation:
In 47 COVID-19–infected German children, nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral loads were similar to those in other age groups, raising concern that children could be as infectious as adults.
And the abstract of that paper--this one's pretty self-explanatory.
Data on viral load, as estimated by real-time RT-PCR threshold cycle values from 3,712 COVID-19 patients were analysed to examine the relationship between patient age and SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Analysis of variance of viral loads in patients of different age categories found no significant difference between any pair of age categories including children. In particular, these data indicate that viral loads in the very young do not differ significantly from those of adults. Based on these results, we have to caution against an unlimited re-opening of schools and kindergartens in the present situation. Children may be as infectious as adults.

Citation 16

Statement in the paper referencing this citation and citation 17:
[...] serious consideration should be paid toward strategies that allow schools to remain open, even during periods of COVID-19 spread. In doing so, we could minimize the potentially profound adverse social, developmental, and health costs that our children will continue to suffer until an effective treatment or vaccine can be developed and distributed or, failing that, until we reach herd immunity.
In summary, the citation is an editorial stating that the prospect of reopening schools during the pandemic has not received nearly enough attention, and that there are significant risks in closing schools, especially for those of lower socioeconomic status.

Citation 17

Another point-of-view article, which has its own 10 citations.
Found this comment on school closure interesting:
If parents must work and grandparents must become the primary caretakers of children, the risk significantly increases that these persons, who are per se at the greatest risk of serious illness, may become infected, and this is what happened in Italy in the first 2 weeks when school closure was decided but other work activities were not stopped.
Another interesting excerpt stated earlier in the article:
In China, it was found that school closure for 2 months was not significantly effective for disease prevention mainly because of the very low incidence of symptomatic disease among school-aged children. Moreover, in Taiwan, it was evidenced that the risk of transmission of infection among children in a classroom was very low, with an R0 less than 1, clearly highlighting that school closure could be only marginally effective.
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2020.07.05 15:35 Kujo17 239 Experts With 1 Big Claim: The Coronavirus Is Airborne - The W.H.O. has resisted mounting evidence that viral particles floating indoors are infectious, some scientists say. The agency maintains the research is still inconclusive.

this article is being posted in full via Source link please consider visiting the site for more information and to support the journalist, it's being posted in full because of the soft paywall on the site. I believe all articles with the NYtimes related to coronavirus are still available with a free subscription. However just to make sure I'm posting here
.
written by Apoorva Mandavilli
.
. The coronavirus is finding new victims worldwide, in bars and restaurants, offices, markets and casinos, giving rise to frightening clusters of infection that increasingly confirm what many scientists have been saying for months: The virus lingers in the air indoors, infecting those nearby.
If airborne transmission is a significant factor in the pandemic, especially in crowded spaces with poor ventilation, the consequences for containment will be significant. Masks may be needed indoors, even in socially distant settings. Health care workers may need N95 masks that filter out even the smallest respiratory droplets as they care for coronavirus patients.
Ventilation systems in schools, nursing homes, residences and businesses may need to minimize recirculating air and add powerful new filters. Ultraviolet lights may be needed to kill viral particles floating in tiny droplets indoors.
The World Health Organization has long held that the coronavirus is spread primarily by large respiratory droplets that, once expelled by infected people in coughs and sneezes, fall quickly to the floor.
But in an open letter to the W.H.O., 239 scientists in 32 countries have outlined the evidence showing that smaller particles can infect people, and are calling for the agency to revise its recommendations. The researchers plan to publish their letter in a scientific journal next week.
Even in its latest update on the coronavirus, released June 29, the W.H.O. said airborne transmission of the virus is possible only after medical procedures that produce aerosols, or droplets smaller than 5 microns. (A micron is equal to one millionth of a meter.)
Proper ventilation and N95 masks are of concern only in those circumstances, according to the W.H.O. Instead, its infection control guidance, before and during this pandemic, has heavilypromoted the importance of handwashing as a primary prevention strategy, even though there is limited evidence for transmission of the virus from surfaces. (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now says surfaces are likely to play only a minor role.)
Dr. Benedetta Allegranzi, the W.H.O.’s technical lead on infection control, said the evidence for the virus spreading by air was unconvincing.
“Especially in the last couple of months, we have been stating several times that we consider airborne transmission as possible but certainly not supported by solid or even clear evidence,” she said. “There is a strong debate on this.”
But interviews with nearly 20 scientists — including a dozen W.H.O. consultants and several members of the committee that crafted the guidance — and internal emails paint a picture of an organization that, despite good intentions, is out of step with science.
Whether carried aloft by large droplets that zoom through the air after a sneeze, or by much smaller exhaled droplets that may glide the length of a room, these experts said, the coronavirus is borne through air and can infect people when inhaled.
Most of these experts sympathized with the W.H.O.’s growing portfolio and shrinking budget, and noted the tricky political relationships it has to manage, especially with the United States and China. They praised W.H.O. staff for holding daily briefings and tirelessly answering questions about the pandemic.
But the infection prevention and control committee in particular, experts said, is bound by a rigid and overly medicalized view of scientific evidence, is slow and risk-averse in updating its guidance and allows a few conservative voices to shout down dissent. “They’ll die defending their view,” said one longstanding W.H.O. consultant, who did not wish to be identified because of her continuing work for the organization. Even its staunchest supporters said the committee should diversify its expertise and relax its criteria for proof, especially in a fast-moving outbreak.
“I do get frustrated about the issues of airflow and sizing of particles, absolutely,” said Mary-Louise McLaws, a committee member and epidemiologist at the University of New South Wales in Sydney.
“If we started revisiting airflow, we would have to be prepared to change a lot of what we do,” she said. “I think it’s a good idea, a very good idea, but it will cause an enormous shudder through the infection control society.”
In early April, a group of 36 experts on air quality and aerosols urged the W.H.O. to consider the growing evidence on airborne transmission of the coronavirus. The agency responded promptly, calling Lidia Morawska, the group’s leader and a longtime W.H.O. consultant, to arrange a meeting.
But the discussion was dominated by a few experts who are staunch supporters of handwashing and felt it must be emphasized over aerosols, according to some participants, and the committee’s advice remained unchanged.
Dr. Morawska and others pointed to several incidents that indicate airborne transmission of the virus, particularly in poorly ventilated and crowded indoor spaces. They said the W.H.O. was making an artificial distinction between tiny aerosols and larger droplets, even though infected people produce both.
“We’ve known since 1946 that coughing and talking generate aerosols,” said Linsey Marr, an expert in airborne transmission of viruses at Virginia Tech.
Scientists have not been able to grow the coronavirus from aerosols in the lab. But that doesn’t mean aerosols are not infective, Dr. Marr said: Most of the samples in those experiments have come from hospital rooms with good air flow that would dilute viral levels. In most buildings, she said, “the air-exchange rate is usually much lower, allowing virus to accumulate in the air and pose a greater risk.”
The W.H.O. also is relying on a dated definition of airborne transmission, Dr. Marr said. The agency believes an airborne pathogen, like the measles virus, has to be highly infectious and to travel long distances.
People generally “think and talk about airborne transmission profoundly stupidly,” said Bill Hanage, an epidemiologist at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
“We have this notion that airborne transmission means droplets hanging in the air capable of infecting you many hours later, drifting down streets, through letter boxes and finding their way into homes everywhere,” Dr. Hanage said.

Precautionary principle

The W.H.O. has found itself at odds with groups of scientists more than once during this pandemic.
The agency lagged behind most of its member nations in endorsing face coverings for the public. While other organizations, including the C.D.C., have long since acknowledged the importance of transmission by people without symptoms, the W.H.O. still maintains that asymptomatic transmission is rare.
“At the country level, a lot of W.H.O. technical staff are scratching their heads,” said a consultant at a regional office in Southeast Asia, who did not wish to be identified because he was worried about losing his contract. “This is not giving us credibility.”
The consultant recalled that the W.H.O. staff members in his country were the only ones to go without masks after the government there endorsed them.
Many experts said the W.H.O. should embrace what some called a “precautionary principle” and others called “needs and values” — the idea that even without definitive evidence, the agency should assume the worst of the virus, apply common sense and recommend the best protection possible.
“There is no incontrovertible proof that SARS-CoV-2 travels or is transmitted significantly by aerosols, but there is absolutely no evidence that it’s not,” said Dr. Trish Greenhalgh, a primary care doctor at the University of Oxford in Britain.
“So at the moment we have to make a decision in the face of uncertainty, and my goodness, it’s going to be a disastrous decision if we get it wrong,” she said. “So why not just mask up for a few weeks, just in case?”
After all, the W.H.O. seems willing to accept without much evidence the idea that the virus may be transmitted from surfaces, she and other researchers noted, even as other health agencies have stepped back emphasizing this route.
“I agree that fomite transmission is not directly demonstrated for this virus,” Dr. Allegranzi, the W.H.O.’s technical lead on infection control, said, referring to objects that may be infectious. “But it is well known that other coronaviruses and respiratory viruses are transmitted, and demonstrated to be transmitted, by contact with fomite.”
The agency also must consider the needs of all its member nations, including those with limited resources, and make sure its recommendations are tempered by “availability, feasibility, compliance, resource implications,” she said.
Aerosols may play some limited role in spreading the virus, said Dr. Paul Hunter, a member of the infection prevention committee and professor of medicine at the University of East Anglia in Britain.
But if the W.H.O. were to push for rigorous control measures in the absence of proof, hospitals in low- and middle-income countries may be forced to divert scarce resources from other crucial programs.
“That’s the balance that an organization like the W.H.O. has to achieve,” he said. “It’s the easiest thing in the world to say, ‘We’ve got to follow the precautionary principle,’ and ignore the opportunity costs of that.”
In interviews, other scientists criticized this view as paternalistic. “‘We’re not going to say what we really think, because we think you can’t deal with it?’ I don’t think that’s right,” said Don Milton, an aerosol expert at the University of Maryland.
Even cloth masks, if worn by everyone, can significantly reduce transmission, and the W.H.O. should say so clearly, he added. Several experts criticized the W.H.O.’s messaging throughout the pandemic, saying the staff seems to prize scientific perspective over clarity.
“What you say is designed to help people understand the nature of a public health problem,” said Dr. William Aldis, a longtime W.H.O. collaborator based in Thailand. “That’s different than just scientifically describing a disease or a virus.”
The W.H.O. tends to describe “an absence of evidence as evidence of absence,” Dr. Aldis added. In April, for example, the W.H.O. said, “There is currently no evidence that people who have recovered from Covid-19 and have antibodies are protected from a second infection.”
The statement was intended to indicate uncertainty, but the phrasing stoked unease among the public and earned rebukes from several experts and journalists. The W.H.O. later walked back its comments.
In a less public instance, the W.H.O. said there was “no evidence to suggest” that people with H.I.V. were at increased risk from the coronavirus. After Joseph Amon, the director of global health at Drexel University in Philadelphia who has sat on many agency committees, pointed out that the phrasing was misleading, the W.H.O. changed it to say the level of risk was “unknown.” But W.H.O. staff and some members said the critics did not give its committees enough credit.
“Those that may have been frustrated may not be cognizant of how W.H.O. expert committees work, and they work slowly and deliberately,” Dr. McLaws said.
Dr. Soumya Swaminathan, the W.H.O.’s chief scientist, said agency staff members were trying to evaluate new scientific evidence as fast as possible, but without sacrificing the quality of their review. She added that the agency will try to broaden the committees’ expertise and communications to make sure everyone is heard.
“We take it seriously when journalists or scientists or anyone challenges us and say we can do better than this,” she said. “We definitely want to do better.”
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2020.06.24 00:27 cocoaAMP Sydney This Weekend June (27th -28th)

First thing first let talk about the elephant in the room,if you are worried about current pandemic please check out the How to Protect Yourself & Others thread, and to end this I (u/cocoaAmp) understand and appreciate the ongoing community concern about the Coronavirus. NSW government are implementing measures to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of all everyone including but not limited to retailers, staff and local community.
Disclaimer: Due to the current uncertainty regarding coronavirus, many events are/MAY being cancelled. It is best to call ahead and/or the event organizer's websites directly via the contact details on the listing if you are unsure.
Stay At Home Crap

UnCategorized Crap

Festival Crap

Free Crap

Outdoor Crap

Trash & Treasure Crap

Tasty Crap

Performance Arts Crap

Gigs Crap

Workshop Crap

Movie Crap

Exhibition Crap

Sport Crap

Craps you guys Suggested
  1. Barrenjoey Lighthouse
  2. South Head
  3. Kamay Botany Bay National Park
  4. Royal National Park
  5. North Head
  6. Bouddi National Park
  7. Shark Island
  8. Ben Buckler
There are Whale Watching cruises that im reluctant to share hope you guys understand. Also if interested you can download Wild About Whales App on Android or IOS


u/nearly_enough_wine and u/SydneyTom you Fine-Looking Gents Sidebar Please!!!

All expense listed above are Entry Fees and or Suggested Minimum Spending (SMS) for an Adult Homo Sapiens of Eighteen years and Plus under the Commonwealth legislation that is implemented by the event promoters which I’ve no authority over with, all prices and dates may subject to change without any of my acknowledgement and or any notice. Please double check with the coordinators for time, date and cost of the event.
This is Crap list is simply accumulate from various websites I’m not the event planner nor the organizer, I’m purely doing this to Crap for my own amusement. I am not here to promote or spam anything on Sydney just putting information for people want to have fun this weekend, future Crap may subject to change and/or seize to exist without any notice. Please also get a hang of this subs wiki page for more and any events that I may have missed. Anyway have a beautiful day you bastards!!!
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2020.06.13 18:09 TheNoHeart B984.A - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill - 2nd Reading

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom" (i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise. (b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities. (b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job. (i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
(7) If the voter turnout is not above 75%, the provisions of this Act shall not come into effect.(8) In order for the provisions of this Act to come into force, 75% of votes cast must be in favour of the proposal.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined. (i) The "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit. (b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides. (c) A period of purdah must begin no later than 14 days before the designated date of the poll.
4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview
(1) The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1) The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys Police Gwent Police North Wales Police South Wales Police Gwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for. (b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as; The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal.The Special Immigration Appeals Commission.Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service(b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law“(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners—7 must be holders of judicial office,5 must be lay members, and(c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers.(2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office—(a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal;(b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court;(c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member;(d) 1 must be a circuit judge;(e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1);(f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3);(g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member.(3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are—(a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2);(b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3));(c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4);(d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5).(4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers—(a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5),(b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other.(5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are—(a)barrister in Wales;(b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales;(c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission. (b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board. (b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent.(2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of—(a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;(b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1) The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment. (b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers. (c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers. (d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
5 Consequential amendments to the Government of Wales Act
(1) Schedule 7A of the Government of Wales Act 2006 is amended as follows.
(2) Omit the subtitle above paragraph 8.
(3) Omit paragraph 8.
(4) For section B4 substitute—“B4 Interception of communications35 The interception of communications; but not—
(a) the interception of any communication made to or by a person detained at a place of detention, if the communication— (i) is a written communication and is intercepted there, or (ii) is intercepted in the course of its transmission by means of a private telecommunication system running there,(b) the subject matter of Part III of the Police Act 1997 or surveillance not involving interference with property.”
(5) Omit sections B5 to B8, B11, B12 and B15
(6) In 54 after “Misuse of and dealing in drugs or psychoactive substances” insert—“Exception In relation to proceeds of crime resultant from, the offence of trafficking and police powers in relation to such drugs and substances.”
(7) In section J1 (Abortion) Omit paragraph 144.
(8) Omit sections L1 to L5 and sections L7 to L14.
(9) Omit section M1.
(10) In schedule 7B omit section 2 and section 3.
(11) After B4 insert a new section—“B5 Criminal and Civil LawThe functions of criminal court and civil courts and laws are reserved only where they—
(a) are not exercised only in relation to Wales, or (b) relate to reserved matters.
Nothing in this section prevents the Senedd from establishing a High Court in Wales to hear cases permissible under this section.”
6 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
This reading will end on the 16th of June.
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2020.06.06 04:43 Niko69lol The legendary Prophet Michel Nostradamus,The Prophet of Calamities

The legendary Prophet Michel Nostradamus,The Prophet of Calamities
Everyone has wondered what will happen in the future, what will the world look like, what will humanity look like in the future?At the time in the 40s, 60s and 80s,people have already created in the drawing, films, radio and books how the future would be.They said that we will have flying cars in 2010 for example, that man created machines and autonomous robots that helped humanity!
There are also those dismal people with the future,that in the future the invasion of privacy will be monitored by the state as foreseen in the book 1984,or that machines, robots and androids will annihilate all of humanity predicted by skynet,global warming, overpopulation, nuclear war and other disasters.
Throughout human history, many mystics have tried to predict the future, but none of them surpass it, NOSTRADAMUS!Who is he, and why was he chosen to face a god in ragnarok?Here is a summary of his life:
Nostradamus
Birthday: December 14, 1503
Nationality: French
Died At Age: 62
Sun Sign: Sagittarius
Also Known As: Michel De Nostredame
Born In: Saint-Rémy-De-Provence, France
Famous As: Physician
Height: 6'2" (188 cm), 6'2" Males
Family:
Spouse/Ex-: Anne Ponsarde Gemelle
Father: Jaume De Nostredame
Mother: Jaume De Nostredame
Siblings: Jean De Nostredame
Children: Andre De Nostredame, Anne De Nostredame, Cesar Nostradamus, Charles De Nostredame, Diane De Nostredame, Made­leine De Nostredame
Education: University Of Montpellier, University Of Avignon
Died On: July 2, 1566
Place Of Death: Salon-De-Provence
Nostradamus was a French physician and seer whose collection of prophesies, ‘Les Propheties’, has been widely credited for predicting major events throughout the world across centuries. Some of the major events that are considered to be predicted in his book include the French Revolution, the rise of Antichrists such as Napoleon and Adolf Hitler, the great fire of London, the development of the atomic bomb, September 11 terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and many more. Since the publication of the book, the number of his admirers has grown steadily, and the book has been as popular to the modern readers as it was to the people of its time. It is a well-known fact that he was a great physician who fought against plague throughout his life and cured innumerable patients; however, today he is best remembered as a great seer .While most of his followers think that his prophesies were the result of divine inspiration, critics maintain that his cryptic language makes most of his predictions vague, and a lack of a specific timeline means most of the prophesies can be associated with more than one similar incidents. They also claim that his followers retrospectively attach a fitting quatrain to a major event after the incident has already happened, which cannot be considered prophesy as such. Others think that instead of accepting them as prophesies, his works should be counted as social commentary that can fit Biblical events to the modern day catastrophes.
Childhood & Early Life
  • Michel de Nostradame was born on December 14 (December 21 by some accounts), 1503, in Saint-Remy-de-Provence south of France, to notary Jaume de Nostradame and his wife Reyniere de St-Remy. He was one of at least nine children of his parents.
  • His paternal grandfather, Guy Gassonet, converted from Judaism to Catholicism in around 1460 and took up the surname Nostredame (Our Lady) to honor the saint on whose day the conversion had happened. Her mother was the granddaughter of Pierre de Saint-Rémy, a renowned physician in Saint-Rémy.
  • According to some sources, as a child, he was tutored by his maternal great-grandfather Jean de St. Rémy. His grandfather is also credited for teaching him classical languages and mathematics.
  • When he was 15, he went to the University of Avignon to study medicine for his baccalaureate. However, following an outbreak of the bubonic plague, the university was shut down and he was forced to leave only after about a year into his studies.
Work as a Physician
  • In 1521, Nostradamus embarked on an eight-year-long journey through the countryside and practiced as an apothecary for some years. He later enrolled into the University of Montpellier in 1529 to complete his degree in medicine, but his notions of astrology were looked down upon by Catholic priests.
  • He was eventually expelled from the university after the authorities learned about his past as an apothecary, a “manual trade” banned by the university. However, some still refer to him as “Doctor” and maintain that he had managed to complete his education and earn a degree.
  • In the following years, he continued to treat plague victims by travelling throughout France and Italy. He not only addressed the lack of proper treatment by experimenting with new remedies, but also cured an impressive number of patients by improving their hygiene and diet.
  • He is credited with creating the vitamin-C-rich herbal lozenge, “rose pill”, made of rosehips, which supposedly protected the people from the plague and was able to cure mild infections. His success as a healer earned him the patronage of many affluent citizens, most notably the leading Renaissance scholar Jules-César Scaliger, who invited him to Agen, in southwestern France, in 1531.
  • In 1538, he drew the ire of the Inquisition after his remark about a religious statue offended the local church in Agen. Afraid of being persecuted, he left France and travelled through Italy, Greece and Turkey for the next few years.
Work as a Seer
  • It is believed that during his travels to ancient mystery schools Nostradamus became more interested in the occult, studying horoscopes, practicing divine meditation, even trying necromancy and good luck charms like the hawthorn rod.
  • According to legends, he made one of his first successful prophecies when he met a group of Franciscan monks and declared that one of them would become Pope in the future. Among them was Felice Peretti, who became Pope Sixtus V in 1585.
  • Despite his occult practices, he remained a Roman Catholic, denouncing the Protestant Reformation, and was able to return back to France a few years later. In 1545, he helped the renowned physician Louis Serre in tackling a major outbreak of the plague in Marseille, and two years later, settled down in Salon-de-Provence, treating plague victims there on his own.
  • According to some sources, he started focusing on the occult practices after settling in Salon-de-Provence, and would often meditate for hours in front of a bowel filled with water and herbs. He claimed to have entered trance-like state in which he saw the visions that became the basis for his prophesies.
  • Seeing that almanacs were very popular at that time, he decided to write his very first almanac in 1550, and also Latinized his name to ‘Nostradamus’, following popular trends. His almanac was received with positive response, which encouraged him to write at least one almanac every year.
  • Over time, he included his visions in his almanacs as prophesies for the future events. Counting all his almanacs, there are at least 6338 prophesies that he wrote during this time.
  • Following the success of his almanacs, he decided to write a book containing one thousand French quatrains, titled ‘Les Propheties’ (The Prophecies), the first volume of which was published in 1555 and contained 100 quatrains. However, fearing religious persecution, he wrote the quatrains in obscure Virgilianised syntax, using words from several different languages, including Greek, Italian, Latin, and Provençal.
  • He claimed that his predictions were based on “judicial astrology”, assessing past astrological events and projecting them to forecast future events. However, his "comparative horoscopy" has been renounced by contemporary astrologers who thought his methods were wrong.
  • The book gained notoriety upon its release as many thought that he served evil supernatural forces to gain the extraordinary knowledge he communicated through the book, while others considered him insane or fake. Nevertheless, the book was able to earn him many admirers among the French nobility.
  • Following the publication of his almanac for 1555, which hinted at unspecific incidents harming the royal family, he was summoned to Paris by Catherine de Médicis, wife of King Henry II of France. Despite his initial fears, she turned out to be one of his ardent admirers and asked him to explain his prophesies and to create horoscopes for her children. He was eventually made Counselor and Physician-in-Ordinary to King Henry’s court.
  • He is often credited for successfully predicting King Henry II’s death in remarkable detail as quatrain I.35 of ‘The Prophecies’ mentioned the agonizing death of a ‘lion’ after being pierced in the eye in battle. In 1559, a 41-year-old King Henry II died following 10 days of suffering after his opponent’s lance pieced his visor and went through his eye during a jousting match.
  • He wrote at least two books on medicine, first of which, the 1555 cookbook titled ‘Traité des fardemens’, documented his methods of treating the plague, sometimes borrowing ideas from others. Two years later, in 1557, he published a loose paraphrase of ‘The Protreptic’ by Galen, the prominent Greek physician of the Roman Empire.
Major Works
  • Despite the fact that Nostradamus has written a couple medical books, it is ‘Les Propheties’ that he is most famous for centuries after his death. Since its original publication, the book has had over two hundred editions and has rarely been out of print.

https://preview.redd.it/4qqbevxnc7351.jpg?width=400&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=20785b5e784fef2e360e043a80b7695aca0b322a
  • While his prophesies have overshadowed his work as a healer, he is often credited for successfully treating the Plague at Aix-en-Provence and at other places. He also created the “rose pill” to provide protection to the common people against the plague.
Personal Life & Legacy
  • After relocating to Agen in 1531, Nostradamus married a local woman, who has been identified by some as Henriette d'Encausse, and had two children with her. Ironically, his reputation as a healer suffered after he failed to save his wife and children, who died in 1534, presumably from the plague.
  • In 1547, he got married to a rich widow named, Anne Ponsarde, in Salon-de-Provence, with whom he had six children: three sons and three daughters. A decade later, he and his wife invested in a massive canal project organized by Adam de Craponne to relieve the dry Salon-de-Provence region of its water problems.
  • Nostradamus, who suffered from gout for a long time, became afflicted with edema or dropsy in 1566, which caused abnormal amounts of fluid to accumulate beneath his skin or within the cavities of his body. He summoned his lawyer in June that year to create a will leaving much of his property to his wife and children.
  • Some accounts maintain that he was able to predict his death as well, as he told his secretary on the evening of 1st July that he would not find him alive the next morning. He was found dead on the next morning ( 2 July 1566), following which he was buried in the local Franciscan chapel in Salon.
Trivia
  • While most of his predictions refer vaguely to incidents in the distant future, Nostradamus is most noted for accurately predicting the death of King Henry II, which happened during his lifetime. However, some have noted that the quatrain I.35 of ‘The Prophecies’ appeared on print for the first time in 1614, 55 years after the event.
  • Even though he was buried in the Franciscan chapel in Salon, his tomb is now located in the Collégiale Saint-Laurent as his body was re-interred during the French Revolution. His original burial spot is now part of the restaurant La Brocherie.
    Nostradamus Predictions
Nostradamus has predicted nearly all the major events in the world. The following are some of the most famous prophecies and predictions by Nostradamus.
Before the war comes, The great wall will fall, The King will be executed, his death coming too soon will be lamented. (The guards) will swim in blood, Near the River Seine the soil will be bloodied.
This is one of the many quatrains which predicts the French Revolution. The great wall refers to Bastille, the King was executed and river Seine in France was bloodied due to the terrible guillotine.
From the depths of the West of Europe, A young child will be born of poor people, He who by his tongue will seduce a great troop; His fame will increase towards the realm of the East.
This prediction is about the rise of Adolf Hitler who was born in West of Europe (Austria) in a poor family. You must be aware the Hitler was a great orator and his speech influenced many people. His fame was spread to East because of his alliance with Japan.
The last son of the man with the prophet's name will bring Diana to her day of rest. At a distance they wander in frenetic grief. Delivering a great people from ruin.
The quatrain predicts about the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. She died with her boyfriend Dodi (he was son of 'Mohamed' Al Fayed). They both died at a distance from their homes, i.e., in France.
Although the predictions of Nostradamus are still debatable, one cannot disagree the fact that more than hundred of his predictions have come true till date. It has been more than 500 years now from the date Nostradamus made his predictions, but, the mystery and curiosity about his prophecies still continues!
About the prophecies:
Here is the link to look at the book online where are your professions
https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Les_Propheties
And for those who want to buy the book or on the kindle:
https://www.amazon.com/Prophecies-Nostradamus-Michel-Nostredame/dp/1479350249/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr=

https://preview.redd.it/6l6sa1k0d7351.jpg?width=894&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a9303f1ec1b9c8148c8a00226c2f4f1f9bc4d58b
submitted by Niko69lol to ShuumatsuNoValkyrie [link] [comments]


2020.06.04 00:17 CountBrandenburg B984 - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill - 3rd Reading Division

Second reading debate may be found here
Second reading debate may be found here

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom" (i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise. (b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities. (b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job. (i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
(7) If the voter turnout is not above 75%, the provisions of this Act shall not come into effect.(8) In order for the provisions of this Act to come into force, 75% of votes cast must be in favour of the proposal.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined. (i) The "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit. (b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides.
(c) A period of purdah must begin no later than 14 days before the designated date of the poll.
4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview
(1) The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1) The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys Police
Gwent Police
North Wales Police
South Wales Police
Gwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for. (b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as; The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal.The Special Immigration Appeals Commission.Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service(b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law“(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners—7 must be holders of judicial office,5 must be lay members, and(c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers.(2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office—(a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal;(b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court;(c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member;(d) 1 must be a circuit judge;(e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1);(f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3);(g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member.(3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are—(a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2);(b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3));(c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4);(d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5).(4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers—(a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5),(b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other.(5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are—(a)barrister in Wales;(b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales;(c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission. (b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board. (b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent.(2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of—(a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;(b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1) The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment.
(b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers.
(c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers.
(d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
5 Consequential amendments to the Government of Wales Act
(1) Schedule 7A of the Government of Wales Act 2006 is amended as follows.
(2) Omit the subtitle above paragraph 8.
(3) Omit paragraph 8.
(4) For section B4 substitute—“B4 Interception of communications35 The interception of communications; but not—
(a) the interception of any communication made to or by a person detained at a place of detention, if the communication—
(i) is a written communication and is intercepted there, or
(ii) is intercepted in the course of its transmission by means of a private telecommunication system running there,(b) the subject matter of Part III of the Police Act 1997 or surveillance not involving interference with property.”
(5) Omit sections B5 to B8, B11, B12 and B15
(6) In 54 after “Misuse of and dealing in drugs or psychoactive substances” insert—“Exception In relation to proceeds of crime resultant from, the offence of trafficking and police powers in relation to such drugs and substances.”
(7) In section J1 (Abortion) Omit paragraph 144.
(8) Omit sections L1 to L5 and sections L7 to L14.
(9) Omit section M1.
(10) In schedule 7B omit section 2 and section 3.
(11) After B4 insert a new section—“B5 Criminal and Civil LawThe functions of criminal court and civil courts and laws are reserved only where they—
(a) are not exercised only in relation to Wales, or
(b) relate to reserved matters.
Nothing in this section prevents the Senedd from establishing a High Court in Wales to hear cases permissible under this section.”
6 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
Please vote Content/Not Content/Present only
This division ends on Friday 5th June at 10PM BST.
submitted by CountBrandenburg to MHOLVote [link] [comments]


2020.05.31 13:07 CountBrandenburg B984 - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill - 3rd Reading

All amendments pass
Second reading debate may be found here

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom" (i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise. (b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities. (b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job. (i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
(7) If the voter turnout is not above 75%, the provisions of this Act shall not come into effect.(8) In order for the provisions of this Act to come into force, 75% of votes cast must be in favour of the proposal.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined. (i) The "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit. (b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides.
(c) A period of purdah must begin no later than 14 days before the designated date of the poll.
4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview
(1) The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1) The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys Police
Gwent Police
North Wales Police
South Wales Police
Gwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for. (b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as; The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal.The Special Immigration Appeals Commission.Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service(b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law“(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners—7 must be holders of judicial office,5 must be lay members, and(c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers.(2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office—(a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal;(b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court;(c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member;(d) 1 must be a circuit judge;(e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1);(f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3);(g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member.(3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are—(a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2);(b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3));(c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4);(d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5).(4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers—(a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5),(b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other.(5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are—(a)barrister in Wales;(b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales;(c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission. (b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board. (b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent.(2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of—(a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;(b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1) The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment.
(b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers.
(c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers.
(d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
5 Consequential amendments to the Government of Wales Act
(1) Schedule 7A of the Government of Wales Act 2006 is amended as follows.
(2) Omit the subtitle above paragraph 8.
(3) Omit paragraph 8.
(4) For section B4 substitute—“B4 Interception of communications35 The interception of communications; but not—
(a) the interception of any communication made to or by a person detained at a place of detention, if the communication—
(i) is a written communication and is intercepted there, or
(ii) is intercepted in the course of its transmission by means of a private telecommunication system running there,(b) the subject matter of Part III of the Police Act 1997 or surveillance not involving interference with property.”
(5) Omit sections B5 to B8, B11, B12 and B15
(6) In 54 after “Misuse of and dealing in drugs or psychoactive substances” insert—“Exception In relation to proceeds of crime resultant from, the offence of trafficking and police powers in relation to such drugs and substances.”
(7) In section J1 (Abortion) Omit paragraph 144.
(8) Omit sections L1 to L5 and sections L7 to L14.
(9) Omit section M1.
(10) In schedule 7B omit section 2 and section 3.
(11) After B4 insert a new section—“B5 Criminal and Civil LawThe functions of criminal court and civil courts and laws are reserved only where they—
(a) are not exercised only in relation to Wales, or
(b) relate to reserved matters.
Nothing in this section prevents the Senedd from establishing a High Court in Wales to hear cases permissible under this section.”
6 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
This reading shall end on Wednesday 3rd June at 10PM BST, with division on Thursday.
submitted by CountBrandenburg to MHOL [link] [comments]


2020.05.26 22:52 CountBrandenburg B984 - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act - Committee Division

Second reading debate may be found here

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise.
(b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities.
(b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job.
(i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined.
(i) The "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit.
(b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides.
4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview
(1) The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1) The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys PoliceGwent PoliceNorth Wales PoliceSouth Wales PoliceGwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for.
(b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as;
The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal.The Special Immigration Appeals Commission.Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service(b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law“(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners—7 must be holders of judicial office,5 must be lay members, and(c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers.(2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office—(a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal;(b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court;(c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member;(d) 1 must be a circuit judge;(e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1);(f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3);(g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member.(3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are—(a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2);(b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3));(c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4);(d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5).(4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers—(a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5),(b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other.(5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are—(a)barrister in Wales;(b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales;(c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission.
(b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board.
(b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent.(2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of—(a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;(b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1)- The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment.(b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers.(c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers.(d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
13 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
Independent Sentencing At 2019
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 Sections 136, 137, 139, and 140
Constitutional Reform Act 2005 Section 3
A01:
For sections 5-12 substitute;
5. Consequential amendments to the Government of Wales Act(1) Schedule 7A of the Government of Wales Act 2006 is amended as follows.(2) Omit the subtitle above paragraph 8.(3) Omit paragraph 8.(4) For section B4 substitute—“B4 Interception of communications35 The interception of communications; but not—(a) the interception of any communication made to or by a person detained at a place of detention, if the communication—(i) is a written communication and is intercepted there, or(ii) is intercepted in the course of its transmission by means of a private telecommunication system running there,(b) the subject matter of Part III of the Police Act 1997 or surveillance not involving interference with property.”(5) Omit sections B5 to B8, B11, B12 and B15(6) In 54 after “Misuse of and dealing in drugs or psychoactive substances” insert—“Exception In relation to proceeds of crime resultant from, the offence of trafficking and police powers in relation to such drugs and substances.”(7) In section J1 (Abortion) Omit paragraph 144.(8) Omit sections L1 to L5 and sections L7 to L14.(9) Omit section M1.(10) In schedule 7B omit section 2 and section 3.(11) After B4 insert a new section—“B5 Criminal and Civil LawThe functions of criminal court and civil courts and laws are reserved only where they—(a) are not exercised only in relation to Wales, or(b) relate to reserved matters.Nothing in this section prevents the Senedd from establishing a High Court in Wales to hear cases permissible under this section.”
And renumber.
This amendment is submitted by The Rt Hon. The Lord Greencastle
A02
Add Section 3 (2) (c)
(C): A period of purdah must begin no later than 14 days before the designated date of the poll.
This amendment is submitted by The Rt Hon. The Baron WalkerPC
A03
Omit section 2(7) and (8).
In section 2, insert:
(7) If the voter turnout is not above 75%, the provisions of this Act shall not come into effect.(8) In order for the provisions of this Act to come into force, 75% of votes cast must be in favour of the proposal.
This amendment is submitted by The Rt Hon. The Baron Grantham KP KD KCB CBE MVO PC QC.
Please vote Content/Not Content/Present on each amendment.
This division ends on Thursday 28th May at 10PM BST, with 3rd Reading on Friday.
submitted by CountBrandenburg to MHOLVote [link] [comments]


2020.05.21 22:42 CountBrandenburg B984 - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act - Committee Reading

2nd Reading Division:
There have voted:
Content: 16
Not Content: 8
Present: 10
The contents have it! We therefore proceed to a committee of the whole house.

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly" (ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise.
(b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities.
(b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job.
(i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined.
(i) The "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit.
(b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides.
4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview
(1) The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1) The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys Police Gwent Police North Wales Police South Wales Police Gwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for.
(b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as;
The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal. The Special Immigration Appeals Commission. Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service (b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law “(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners— 7 must be holders of judicial office, 5 must be lay members, and (c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers. (2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office— (a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal; (b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court; (c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member; (d) 1 must be a circuit judge; (e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1); (f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3); (g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member. (3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are— (a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2); (b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3)); (c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4); (d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5). (4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers— (a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5), (b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other. (5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are— (a)barrister in Wales; (b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales; (c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission.
(b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board.
(b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent. (2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of— (a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice; (b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1)- The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment. (b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers. (c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers. (d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
13 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
Independent Sentencing At 2019
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 Sections 136, 137, 139, and 140
Constitutional Reform Act 2005 Section 3
Amendments should be sent to CountBrandenburg by 25th May 2020 at 10PM BST. (via Reddit or Discord, Count Damien of Brandenburg#8004, or a comment to this post.)
Amendments should clearly indicate what is being amended (add, change or remove) and in Reddit Markdown format. Amendments not in this form will not be accepted.
submitted by CountBrandenburg to MHOL [link] [comments]


2020.05.18 11:13 CheckMyBrain11 B984 - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act - 2nd Reading Division

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) On the ballot, voters shall select from one of two statements, the statements shall be preceded by the following messages, all of which shall be in both English and Welsh;
(a) “Parliament has decided to give the decision to the people of Wales on the proposals for expanding the powers of the Senedd,” followed by the two statements; (The Electoral commission, can review the text of the question for bias and alter it in any way)
(i) “I agree justice and policing policy should be decided by the Senedd.”
(ii) “I do not agree justice and policing policy should be decided by the Senedd.”
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"
(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise.
(b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities.
(b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job. (i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect 14 days after the certification on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined.
(i) The “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit.
(b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides.
**4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview**
(1)- The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys Police
Gwent Police
North Wales Police
South Wales Police
Gwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for.
(b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as;
The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal. The Special Immigration Appeals Commission.
Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service
(b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law “(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners—
7 must be holders of judicial office,
5 must be lay members, and
(c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers.
(2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office—
(a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal;
(b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court;
(c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member;
(d) 1 must be a circuit judge;
(e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1);
(f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3);
(g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member.
(3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are—
(a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2);
(b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3));
(c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4);
(d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5).
(4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers—
(a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5),
(b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other.
(5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are—
(a)barrister in Wales;
(b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales;
(c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Welsh ministers Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission.
(b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board.
(b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, a Welsh Category Limits Council is hereby established. Its task and governance shall be identical to the provisions of the Independent Sentencing At 2019, with the substitution of Welsh ministers for Lord Chancellor.
(2) The Category Limits Council shall provide the Welsh Category Limits Council with a full report of its work so far.
(a) Advance notice of the publication of guidance after the separation of the legal jurisdictions shall be given to the Welsh Category Limits Council, as well as the guideline in question.
(3) The Welsh Category Limits Council shall prioritize continuity of the guidelines being developed by the Category Limits Council at the time of the legal jurisdiction divergence, and the development of its guidelines after the divergence should attempt to sync with the guidelines of the Category Limits Council until such time as the laws and sentences being reviewed have been sufficiently altered by the Senedd to require different sentences.
(a) The abolition of maximum and minimum sentences shall go into force at the same time as those in England, unless the Government of Wales has determined that sufficient legal divergence between Wales and England has occured between the separation of legal jurisdictions and the “day of abolition”.
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent.
(2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of—
(a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
(b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1)- The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment.
(b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers.
(c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers.
(d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
13 Parliamentary Supremacy
(1) Nothing in this legislation shall be construed as restricting the power of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to make laws for Wales.
(a) It is however recognized that the Parliament ought not to legislate on these newly devolved matters without the consent of the Senedd.
13 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act shall come into force immediately upon Royal Assent, with its provisions being activated by an affirmative vote in the Senedd for this legislation.
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
Independent Sentencing At 2019
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 Sections 136, 137, 139, and 140
This division ends on 20th May. Please vote content/not content/present.
submitted by CheckMyBrain11 to MHOLVote [link] [comments]


2020.05.17 15:06 rrixham New UK deaths announced May 17th 2020

New UK deaths announced May 17th 2020
Breakdown of deaths by nation
  • NHS England Daily Deaths: 90, Total: 24,617
  • NHS Cases where COVID-19 is mentioned on the death certificate and no positive test result was received. Daily Deaths: 7, Total: 507
  • Public Health Wales Daily Deaths: 12, Total: 1,203
  • HSC N Ireland Daily Deaths: 4, Total: 473
  • Scotland (HPS) Daily Deaths: 41, Total: 2,094
Aggregated Daily Deaths: 147, Total: 28,387 - Figures correct as of 16-05-20 - Excludes England Care Home & Community Deaths.
Note: The Covid Patient Notification System did not operate for a period of time on Saturday 16 May. The consequences of this situation may therefore be reflected in the number of deaths reported today by NHS England and NHS Improvement
Announced deaths and cases for the UK:
  • DHSC Daily Deaths: 147, Total: 28,417 - 30 NHS Duplicate deaths (old method)
  • PHE & DHSC Combined Daily Deaths: 170 Total: 34,636. (new method)
  • England Community and Care Home Deaths: 23. Total. 6,251
  • England w/ community and care homes included: 113, Total: 30,866
  • Daily Lab-Confirmed UK Cases: 3,534, Total: 243,695
Announced number of people tested in the UK:
  • People tested : 76,684
  • Cumulative Total: 1,818,712
    NHS Regional breakdown of England's deaths:
  • East Of England Daily Deaths: 7, Total: 2,829
  • London Daily Deaths: 0, Total: 5,772
  • Midlands Daily Deaths: 5, Total: 4,811
  • North East And Yorkshire Daily Deaths: 11, Total: 3,473
  • North West Daily Deaths: 6, Total: 3,767
  • South-east Daily Deaths: 4, Total: 2,847
  • South-west Daily Deaths: 0, Total: 1,118
Announced deaths for NI and Scotland:
  • 17-05-20 HSC N Ireland Daily Deaths: 3, Total: 476
  • 17-05-20 HPS Scotland Daily Deaths: 9, Total: 2103
Additional Information:
  • The R number in the UK is estimated to be between 0.7 and 1.
  • The R number in Scotland is between 0.8 and closer to 1.
  • Compare with yesterday's figures.
On 16 May there were:
  • 3,043 tests carried out by NHS Scotland in hospitals, care homes or the community, making a total of 122,365 COVID-19 tests through NHS labs to date
  • in addition, there were 1,678 drive through and mobile tests carried out by the Regional Testing Centres in Scotland bringing the total to 37,877 tests to date
  • 7,433 calls to 111 and 110 calls to the Coronavirus Helpline. The number of calls to 111 includes all calls, whether or not they relate to COVID-19
  • 1,522 Scottish Ambulance Service (SAS) attendances, of which 287 were for suspected COVID-19. SAS took 190 people to hospital with suspected COVID-19
  • 486 (45%) adult care homes with a current case of suspected COVID-19. At least one resident in the care home has exhibited symptoms during the last 14 days
  • 632 (58%) adult care homes which have lodged at least one notification for suspected COVID-19 to the Care Inspectorate since the start of the epidemic. 463 of these care homes have reported more than one case of suspected COVID-19
  • 5,096 cumulative cases of suspected COVID-19 in care homes. This is an increase of 27 suspected cases on the previous day
  • a total of 6,233 staff, or around 3.8% of the NHS workforce, reporting as absent due to a range of reasons related to COVID-19
  • 3,354 inpatients have been discharged from hospital since 5th March, who had been tested positive for COVID-19, up from yesterday’s total of 3,335
  • 638 people delayed in hospital as at 14 May. This is 974 less than the baseline period (04/03 weekly return). An initial target to reduce delays by 400 by the end of March and a further target of reducing by a further 500 by the end of April have now been met
  • 3,121 staff were reported as absent in adult care homes due to COVID-19, based on returns received from 813 (75%) adult care homes as at 12 May. Staff absent due to COVID-19 represents 7.3% of all adult care home staff (42,626) for whom a return was provided. The absence figures for NHS staff and care home staff are calculated in different ways and caution should be exercised in making comparisons – see the data sources and definitions document for full details. This data will be updated weekly
  • Trends in daily COVID-19 data for Scotland
Additional News and Updates:
  • The government has published Its Coronavirus recovery plan here (pdf) and, Coronavirus outbreak FAQs: what you can and can't do from Wednesday 13 May
  • Vaccines Manufacturing and Innovation Centre to open 12 months ahead of schedule
  • NRS update: As at 10th May, there have been a total of 3,213 deaths registered in Scotland where the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was mentioned on the death certificate. The first mention of COVID-19 in a registered death certificate was the week beginning 16th March 2020.
  • ONS Publishes it's latest update here
Thanks for viewing - I'll be back again tomorrow. Please stay safe.
Total deaths by age group data up to 5pm 16 May 2020
Daily Breakdown by age group 12th / 16th May
All deaths by gender data up to 5pm 12 May 2020 (weekly update)
Breakdown by ethnicity data up to 5pm 12 May 2020 (weekly update)
Breakdown by pre-existing condition: Data up to 5pm 12 May 2020 (weekly update)
Patients who have died from COVID-19 may have had more than one pre-existing condition. Data up to 5pm 12 May 2020 (weekly update)
NHS Notes: On deaths specifically in Mental Health and Learning Disability and/or Autism inpatient settings, we have been informed of 76 patient deaths, the majority occurring in acute older adult organic or functional services.
In these inpatient settings, 14 deaths occurred for patients detained under the Mental Health Act and 3 deaths occurred where the patient was of BAME background. As all these deaths were in hospital they are included in the figures in the table above.
We will shortly publish additional data showing deaths of people with learning disability or autism which have been reported through the Learning Disabilities Mortality Review Programme, which includes any death of someone with a learning disability as reported to the Programme provider, the University of Bristol.
R Number by Region (England)
Highest Number of deaths by leading causes in England and Wales.
https://preview.redd.it/lx225q5eobz41.png?width=693&format=png&auto=webp&s=7c1cc0829534d234ae9262cd0fa46945338336f4
There was are a higher proportion of deaths involving COVID-19 among male care home residents than females across all age groups
Deaths in England were 109% higher in the week ending 10 April than the same week in previous years – a higher excess mortality than Italy experienced in the week ending 27 March. source: Guardian
7 Weeks of Excess Deaths by Region, England & Wales
submitted by rrixham to CoronavirusUK [link] [comments]


2020.05.16 15:14 rrixham New UK deaths announced May 16th 2020

New UK deaths announced May 16th 2020
Breakdown of deaths by nation
  • NHS England Daily Deaths: 181, Total: 24,527
  • NHS Cases where COVID-19 is mentioned on the death certificate and no positive test result was received. Daily Deaths: 26, Total: 500
  • Public Health Wales Daily Deaths: 18, Total: 1,191
  • HSC N Ireland Daily Deaths: 15, Total: 469
  • Scotland (HPS) Daily Deaths: 46, Total: 2,053
Aggregated Daily Deaths: 260, Total: 28,240 - Figures correct as of 15-05-20 - Excludes England Care Home & Community Deaths.
Announced deaths and cases for the UK:
  • DHSC Daily Deaths: 260, Total: 28,270 - 30 NHS Duplicate deaths (old method)
  • PHE & DHSC Combined Daily Deaths: 468 Total: 34,466. (new method)
  • England Community and Care Home Deaths: 208. Total. 6228
  • England w/ community and care homes included: 389, Total: 30,753
  • Daily Lab-Confirmed UK Cases: 3,451, Total: 240,161.
Announced number of people tested in the UK:
  • People tested : 78,537
  • Cumulative Total: 1,742,028
    NHS Regional breakdown of England's deaths:
  • East Of England Daily Deaths: 5, Total: 2,819
  • London Daily Deaths: 2, Total: 5,766
  • Midlands Daily Deaths: 6, Total: 4,790
  • North East And Yorkshire Daily Deaths: 14, Total: 3,455
  • North West Daily Deaths: 8, Total: 3,749
  • South-east Daily Deaths: 3, Total: 2,832
  • South-west Daily Deaths: 1, Total: 1,116
Announced deaths for NI and Scotland:
  • 16-05-20 HSC N Ireland Daily Deaths: 4, Total: 473
  • 16-05-20 HPS Scotland Daily Deaths: 41, Total: 2,094
Additional Information:
  • The R number in the UK is estimated to be between 0.7 and 1.
  • The R number (effective reproduction number) in Scotland is between 0.8 and closer to 1.
  • Compare with yesterday's figures.
On 15 May there were:
  • 4,840 tests carried out by NHS Scotland in hospitals, care homes or the community, making a total of 119,322 COVID-19 tests through NHS labs to date
  • in addition, there were 1,679 drive through and mobile tests carried out by the Regional Testing Centres in Scotland bringing the total to 36,199 tests to date
  • 2,845 calls to 111 and 247 calls to the Coronavirus Helpline. The number of calls to 111 includes all calls, whether or not they relate to COVID-19
  • 1,648 Scottish Ambulance Service (SAS) attendances, of which 274 were for suspected COVID-19. SAS took 193 people to hospital with suspected COVID-19
  • 486 (45%) adult care homes with a current case of suspected COVID-19. At least one resident in the care home has exhibited symptoms during the last 14 days
  • 632 (58%) adult care homes which have lodged at least one notification for suspected COVID-19 to the Care Inspectorate since the start of the epidemic. 463 of these care homes have reported more than one case of suspected COVID-19
  • 5,069 cumulative cases of suspected COVID-19 in care homes. This is an increase of 94 suspected cases on the previous day
  • a total of 6,620 staff, or around 4.0% of the NHS workforce, reporting as absent due to a range of reasons related to COVID-19
  • 3,336 inpatients have been discharged from hospital since 5th March, who had been tested positive for COVID-19, up from yesterday’s total of 3,290
  • 638 people delayed in hospital as at 14 May. This is 974 less than the baseline period (04/03 weekly return). An initial target to reduce delays by 400 by the end of March and a further target of reducing by a further 500 by the end of April have now been met
  • 3,121 staff were reported as absent in adult care homes due to COVID-19, based on returns received from 813 (75%) adult care homes as at 12 May. Staff absent due to COVID-19 represents 7.3% of all adult care home staff (42,626) for whom a return was provided. The absence figures for NHS staff and care home staff are calculated in different ways and caution should be exercised in making comparisons – see the data sources and definitions document for full details. This data will be updated weekly
  • Trends in daily COVID-19 data for Scotland
Additional News and Updates:
  • The government has published Its Coronavirus recovery plan here (pdf) and, Coronavirus outbreak FAQs: what you can and can't do from Wednesday 13 May
  • NRS update: As at 10th May, there have been a total of 3,213 deaths registered in Scotland where the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was mentioned on the death certificate. The first mention of COVID-19 in a registered death certificate was the week beginning 16th March 2020.
  • ONS Publishes it's latest update here
Thanks for viewing - I'll be back again tomorrow. Please stay safe.
Daily Breakdown by age group 12th / 15th May
All deaths by gender
NHS ENGLAND: Breakdown by ethnicity
Breakdown by pre existing condition
Patients who have died from COVID-19 may have had more than one pre-existing condition.
NHS Notes: On deaths specifically in Mental Health and Learning Disability and/or Autism inpatient settings, we have been informed of 76 patient deaths, the majority occurring in acute older adult organic or functional services.
In these inpatient settings, 14 deaths occurred for patients detained under the Mental Health Act and 3 deaths occurred where the patient was of BAME background. As all these deaths were in hospital they are included in the figures in the table above.
We will shortly publish additional data showing deaths of people with learning disability or autism which have been reported through the Learning Disabilities Mortality Review Programme, which includes any death of someone with a learning disability as reported to the Programme provider, the University of Bristol.
Highest Number of deaths by leading causes in England and Wales.
https://preview.redd.it/ssclcn9me4z41.png?width=693&format=png&auto=webp&s=eb1bea41a0a3ac4400e36bee0c120a8ee920d0d1
There was are a higher proportion of deaths involving COVID-19 among male care home residents than females across all age groups
Deaths involving COVID-19 are higher in the care home population when compared to the non-care home population
7 Weeks of Excess Deaths by Region, England & Wales
UK COMBINED DEATHS (ALL SETTINGS)
NUMBER OF DEATHS NOT COUNTED BY UK GOV
DAILY ANNOUNCED UK CASES
submitted by rrixham to CoronavirusUK [link] [comments]


2020.05.15 22:23 CountBrandenburg B984 - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill - 2nd Reading

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) On the ballot, voters shall select from one of two statements, the statements shall be preceded by the following messages, all of which shall be in both English and Welsh;
(a) “Parliament has decided to give the decision to the people of Wales on the proposals for expanding the powers of the Senedd,” followed by the two statements; (The Electoral commission, can review the text of the question for bias and alter it in any way)
(i) “I agree justice and policing policy should be decided by the Senedd.”
(ii) “I do not agree justice and policing policy should be decided by the Senedd.”
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"
(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise.
(b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities.
(b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job. (i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect 14 days after the certification on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined.
(i) The “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit.
(b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides.
**4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview**
(1)- The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys Police
Gwent Police
North Wales Police
South Wales Police
Gwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for.
(b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as;
The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal. The Special Immigration Appeals Commission.
Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service
(b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law “(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners—
7 must be holders of judicial office,
5 must be lay members, and
(c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers.
(2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office—
(a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal;
(b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court;
(c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member;
(d) 1 must be a circuit judge;
(e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1);
(f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3);
(g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member.
(3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are—
(a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2);
(b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3));
(c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4);
(d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5).
(4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers—
(a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5),
(b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other.
(5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are—
(a)barrister in Wales;
(b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales;
(c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Welsh ministers Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission.
(b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board.
(b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, a Welsh Category Limits Council is hereby established. Its task and governance shall be identical to the provisions of the Independent Sentencing At 2019, with the substitution of Welsh ministers for Lord Chancellor.
(2) The Category Limits Council shall provide the Welsh Category Limits Council with a full report of its work so far.
(a) Advance notice of the publication of guidance after the separation of the legal jurisdictions shall be given to the Welsh Category Limits Council, as well as the guideline in question.
(3) The Welsh Category Limits Council shall prioritize continuity of the guidelines being developed by the Category Limits Council at the time of the legal jurisdiction divergence, and the development of its guidelines after the divergence should attempt to sync with the guidelines of the Category Limits Council until such time as the laws and sentences being reviewed have been sufficiently altered by the Senedd to require different sentences.
(a) The abolition of maximum and minimum sentences shall go into force at the same time as those in England, unless the Government of Wales has determined that sufficient legal divergence between Wales and England has occured between the separation of legal jurisdictions and the “day of abolition”.
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent.
(2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of—
(a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
(b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1)- The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment.
(b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers.
(c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers.
(d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
13 Parliamentary Supremacy
(1) Nothing in this legislation shall be construed as restricting the power of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to make laws for Wales.
(a) It is however recognized that the Parliament ought not to legislate on these newly devolved matters without the consent of the Senedd.
13 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act shall come into force immediately upon Royal Assent, with its provisions being activated by an affirmative vote in the Senedd for this legislation.
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
Independent Sentencing At 2019
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 Sections 136, 137, 139, and 140
This reading ends on Sunday 17th May at 10PM BST, with division on Monday
submitted by CountBrandenburg to MHOL [link] [comments]


2020.05.15 15:02 rrixham New UK deaths announced May 15th 2020

New UK deaths announced May 15th 2020
Breakdown of deaths by nation
  • NHS England Daily Deaths: 186, Total: 24,346
  • NHS Cases where COVID-19 is mentioned on the death certificate and no positive test result was received. Daily Deaths: 26, Total: 474
  • Public Health Wales Daily Deaths: 9 Total: 1,173
  • HSC N Ireland Daily Deaths: 5, Total: 454
  • Scotland (HPS) Daily Deaths: 34, Total: 2,007
Aggregated Daily Deaths: 234, Total: 27,980 - Figures correct as of 14-05-20 - Excludes England Care Home & Community Deaths.
Announced deaths and cases for the UK:
  • DHSC Daily Deaths: 234, Total: 28,010 - 30 NHS Duplicate deaths (old method)
  • PHE & DHSC Combined Daily Deaths: 384 Total: 33,998. (new method)
  • England Community and Care Home Deaths: 150, Total: 6,157.
  • Daily Lab-Confirmed UK Cases: 3,560, Total: 236,711.
Announced number of people tested in the UK:
  • People tested : 69,590
  • Cumulative Total: 1,663,492
Regional breakdown of England's deaths:
  • East Of England Daily Deaths: 9, Total: 2,795
  • London Daily Deaths: 6, Total: 5,745
  • Midlands Daily Deaths: 4, Total: 4,742
  • North East And Yorkshire Daily Deaths: 10, Total: 3,423
  • North West Daily Deaths: 7, Total: 3,720
  • South-east Daily Deaths: 9, Total: 2,812
  • South-west Daily Deaths: 0, Total: 1,109
Announced deaths for NI and Scotland:
  • 15-05-20 HSC N Ireland Daily Deaths: 15, Total: 469
  • 15-05-20 HPS Scotland Daily Deaths: 46, Total: 2,053
Additional Information:
  • The R number in the UK is estimated to be between 0.7 and 1.
  • The R number (effective reproduction number) in Scotland is between 0.8 and closer to 1.
  • Compare with yesterday's figures.
On 14 May there were:
  • 3,221 tests carried out by NHS Scotland in hospitals, care homes or the community, making a total of 114,482 COVID-19 tests through NHS labs to date.
  • In addition, there were 1,992 drive through and mobile tests carried out by the Regional Testing Centres in Scotland bringing the total to 34,520 tests to date.
  • 2,763 calls to 111 and 265 calls to the Coronavirus Helpline. The number of calls to 111 includes all calls, whether or not they relate to COVID-19.
  • 1,523 Scottish Ambulance Service (SAS) attendances, of which 260 were for suspected COVID-19. SAS took 170 people to hospital with suspected COVID-19.
  • 488 (45%) adult care homes with a current case of suspected COVID-19. At least one resident in the care home has exhibited symptoms during the last 14 days.
  • 629 (58%) adult care homes which have lodged at least one notification for suspected COVID-19 to the Care Inspectorate since the start of the epidemic. 459 of these care homes have reported more than one case of suspected COVID-19.
  • 4,975 cumulative cases of suspected COVID-19 in care homes. This is an increase of 106 suspected cases on the previous day.
  • a total of 6,478 staff, or around 3.9% of the NHS workforce, reporting as absent due to a range of reasons related to COVID-19.
  • 3,290 inpatients have been discharged from hospital since 5 March, who had been tested positive for COVID-19, up from yesterday’s total of 3,252 (due to resubmission by one board, yesterday’s total has been revised from 3,253 to 3,252)
  • 638 people delayed in hospital as at 14 May. This is 974 less than the baseline period (04/03 weekly return). An initial target to reduce delays by 400 by the end of March and a further target of reducing by a further 500 by the end of April have now been met.
  • 3,121 staff were reported as absent in adult care homes due to COVID-19, based on returns received from 813 (75%) adult care homes as at 12 May. Staff absent due to COVID-19 represents 7.3% of all adult care home staff (42,626) for whom a return was provided. The absence figures for NHS staff and care home staff are calculated in different ways and caution should be exercised in making comparisons – see the data sources and definitions document for full details. This data will be updated weekly.
  • Trends in daily COVID-19 data for Scotland
Additional News and Updates:
  • The government has published Its Coronavirus recovery plan here (pdf) and, Coronavirus outbreak FAQs: what you can and can't do from Wednesday 13 May
  • NRS update: As at 10th May, there have been a total of 3,213 deaths registered in Scotland where the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was mentioned on the death certificate. The first mention of COVID-19 in a registered death certificate was the week beginning 16th March 2020.
  • ONS Publishes it's latest update here
Thanks for viewing - I'll be back again tomorrow. Please stay safe.
ONS: There was are a higher proportion of deaths involving COVID-19 among male care home residents than females across all age groups
ONS: Deaths involving COVID-19 are higher in the care home population when compared to the non-care home population

Highest Number of deaths by leading causes in England and Wales.
Additionally, no deaths occurred from the following causes in April in England and Wales:
  • Suicide and injury/poisoning of undetermined intent - 0
  • Accidental drowning and submersion - 0
  • Non-intentional firearm discharge - 0
  • Accidents - 0
  • Accidental falls - 0
  • Land transport accidents - 0
  • Homicide and probable homicide - 0
  • Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium - 0
Link to source
NHS ENGLAND: Breakdown by ethnicity
NHS ENGLAND: Breakdown by pre existing condition
Patients who have died form COVID-19 may have had more than one pre-existing condition. Separately identified pre-existing conditions are reported in this table.
NHS NOTE: On deaths specifically in Mental Health and Learning Disability and/or Autism inpatient settings, we have been informed of 76 patient deaths, the majority occurring in acute older adult organic or functional services.
In these inpatient settings, 14 deaths occurred for patients detained under the Mental Health Act and 3 deaths occurred where the patient was of BAME background. As all these deaths were in hospital they are included in the figures in the table above.
We will shortly publish additional data showing deaths of people with learning disability or autism which have been reported through the Learning Disabilities Mortality Review Programme, which includes any death of someone with a learning disability as reported to the Programme provider, the University of Bristol.
TOTAL COMMUNITY AND CARE HOME DEATHS IN (ENGLAND)
NUMBER OF DEATHS NOT COUNTED BY UK GOV
UK COMBINED DEATHS (ALL SETTINGS)
DAILY UK CASES
submitted by rrixham to CoronavirusUK [link] [comments]


2020.05.01 18:21 transhumanist-viking Decorum Est - The British Union

Hey! Happy May Day everyone!
Decorum Est is proud to present our first country's dev diary, covering the first year of ten for the British Union, the communist state that emerged from the collapse of the British Empire during the 1920s. In this diary, we’ll take a quick look at the history, the three major paths, and what their plans are. But of course, you know what they say about the best laid plans.
Pre-WW1 + WW1
When Hephaestium was discovered in 1899, much of the British establishment paid it no mind, seeing it as a good step for scientific progress, but no more than a curiosity after no meaningful deposits of it were discovered within Britain. Larger deposits were found in the Raj and in Britain’s African colonies, and it was transferred over to begin some research into the substance, but with the sun still shining brightly on the British Empire, arrogance stood in the way of the pursuit of knowledge. With what little research was happening, Britain was unable to gain an understanding of the advantages that Hephaestium-infused weapons could bring in war. After the Second Boer War had broken out, many scientific institutes had clamoured for the opportunity to field-test such weapons, but it was deemed unnecessary by the higher-ups in government, and the proposition was rejected.
To the world around it, Britain appeared to be a sort of sleeping giant on the world-stage. The only conflicts it saw between Hephaestium’s discovery and the Great War were the Second Boer War and various minor border conflicts and small insurgencies across the vast swathes of empire. Once the Great War broke out, however, it was clear what British arrogance had achieved after the first of the British Expeditionary Forces were sent to France. Artillery barrages from the Central Powers were leaving a radiant blue glow in the lands that were turned over by new Hephaestium-infused munitions, devastating the land, and the forces stuck in the mire below.
At sea, Britain was devastated by the German Navy, who managed to easily sink any of the Royal Navy ships that stuck around too long. With the weakening of the Royal Navy, Germany pulled off a historical manoeuvre by managing to land its own troops on British soil - the first successful naval invasion since William of Orange’s Glorious Revolution in 1688. Britain experienced domestic shelling for the first time, with German barrages reaching London before they were successfully pushed back.
Although the Entente’s African front had been successful, with French and British colonial forces seizing German territories, the meat grinder that was trench warfare in Europe turned into a standstill, neither side able to advance any further. The heavy conscription, high death tolls, and the devastation of both the Royal Navy and the south-east of England all came together and planted a seed of doubt in the British populace’s mind about the current order.
Post-WW1
After the Great War, there was a vast economic downturn as the soldiers came home, as the Spanish flu ripped through the world, and as the British Empire struggled to cope with the humiliating losses at Jutland and the invasion of their own territory. Faith in the British Empire had, for many, been shattered, and the working peoples of Britain began to follow whoever offered an alternative - for some, it was the trade unions, others put their trust in Moscow, who had suffered as much violence as Britain in the Great War and the Civil War, but was steadily recovering. Others still looked towards young, radical, upstarts who invoked the name of “Guildism” as their guiding light.
Of course, other, more radical strains of nationalism also evolved, the British Fascisti and the Imperial Group formed, taking from Mussolini’s theory and adapting it to their own needs, largely separating the “dictator who couldn’t” from their rhetoric, no matter how similar it was.
There had been numerous signs forewarning trouble since the war had ended, but then came 1927, and with it, a general strike. Increasingly common in these troubled years, the nationalist and anti-communist groups always responded quickly, scabs wearing the hat of the British Fascists often appearing in stores while protesters and strikers marched in the street. But this one was different - instead of merely demanding government change, resulting in another election after some shameful resignations, this one was violent, radical. Conflicts between the police and the protesters were common, but this general strike was far more violent, going out of its way to actively raid police stations, arming workers, and outright preparing for confrontation.
Due to the demilitarization programs post-war, many hundreds of thousands of soldiers were left with no job at all, and struggled to survive. When this nascent revolution formed, they created ad-hoc Soldier’s Councils, and prepared to fight for the promise of a better life. After beating the London police, the government broke in fear of the protesters, and fled. Many fled to Canada, others to France, some to the other colonies. The Royals, however, fearing the upstart Winnipeg Revolution would spiral out of control, traveled to Australia. This abandonment of Britain in its time of need shocked everyone, particularly the nationalists and remaining military, who laid down their arms, many of them also fleeing whenever possible.
Faced with a situation of chaos and anarchy (not the type the anarchists wanted, either), the three major Communist groups agreed that the best way forward was to form a provisional government, one that would allow Britons to choose the way. The Communist Party of Great Britain, the Trade Unions Congress, and the National Guilds League have been vying for the people’s attention, now in battles of wits, as the declared date for the Provisional Government’s first election draws near.
Situation at Game-Start
At the start of the game, you are led by Walter Citrine, leader of the Provisional Government. This government has been plagued with problems,from ineffective rule to the need to import vast quantities of food in order to stave off a famine due to the loss of the Empire, making it reliant on sympathetic socialist states who are willing to keep prices low. Citrine, with the election coming up, has decided to step down now that elections are being held, as to prevent a conflict of interest between him as a member of the TUC and his position as current leader of the provisional government. The player is treated to a short election cycle where the politics of the various regions of Britain are described, and will be allowed to choose who wins the election - the National Guilds League, the Trade Unions Congress, or the Communist Party of Great Britain.
Path 1
The Guildists are an agrarian communist party (led by GDH Cole) that wants to instate a radical form of “guild socialism” in which the people organize themselves into socialist guilds based on merit and opportunity. The skilled teach the unskilled, the master teaches the apprentice. To this end, when they get into power they begin radical reorganization of society and specifically work towards promoting a lifestyle that’s distinctly anachronistic in nature - they subsidize people who wish to work in cottage industries, and try to dismantle large industrial centres. Of course, this wasn’t where their most loyal voterbase came from.
Their loyal voter-base came from the promise of devolution - breaking the hold of the United Kingdom over Scotland and Wales once and for all. After all, a socialist state that engages in imperialism, that seeks to eradicate and change cultures, that doesn’t respect the autonomy of the people? Unthinkable! And so they - unlikely candidates for British rule as they are - start the process of devolution. While there’s much opposition to the idea, they don’t make the nations wholly independent - a devolved Britain features Wales and Scotland as dominions under Engla--wait, who are these folk?
After ceding significant autonomy to the nations, the NGL have plans. Many, many more plans. But this is just a taste, so let’s move on.
Path 2
The Trades Union Congress is a large organization, covering massive groups of steelworkers, factorymen, miners, and other such groups. As a result, it’s an extremely popular group in this new Britain, though many people still reject its messages in favour of its rivals, leaving its security in the election unassured. Following Citrine’s retirement, it is now led by Ernest Bevin.
Should it win, however, it will go into a frenzy of reforms - the TUC spearheaded the idea of the collective government, and seeing it spiral so hard and fast has deeply disturbed them. CPBU judges and NGL lawyers, policemen who thought old laws applied as always, and of course the unpopular rationing system, all of that is something that needs to change. And so, in their first set of reforms, they go towards making sure they can consolidate power through union representation and council formation.
In the second set of reforms, they directly target the justice system, reform the minimum wage, and expand their councils to farms, factories, anywhere that could use some good old workplace democratization.
In the final set we’re showing for the dev diary, they loosen the belts, taking a temporary hit to spending in order to import even more food, and begin committees and councils in order to justify and legitimize the revolution - the Inequality Commission investigates the horrors of monarchism, for example. Of course, this is only the beginning of their plans.
Path 3
And finally, the third path today will be the Communist Party of Great Brita--the Communist Party of the British Union. Led by Ellen “Red Ellen” Wilkinson, it’s a firmly Leninist party that wants to follow the line of Moscow, leading to the somewhat derogatory title of “Moscowites.”
They take two distinct paths - Lenin’s line and Communism Britain’s Way. The first deals with aligning the state of the British Union with the USSR - security, solidarity, and bureaucracy are the name of the game here. By the way, the game’s played by a lake, how lovely.
Of course, the lake is actually a LAIC, the Labour And Internment Camps that the CPBU begins to construct to house the political dissenters it finds. It’s not pleasant, to say the least, and the CPBU tends to take a hard line against such people. While not (yet) a full-fledged Red Terror, that seems to be more a matter of waiting until their power is secure, and many political rivals are waiting, hoping that the CPBU does not see them as British Mensheviks or revisionists. Time will tell what happens.
However, the problem with the CPBU is that they might just run out of time.Who knows what could happen?
Conclusion
Now, this might make life in Communist Britain look almost cheery, pleasant. But it should be noted that opposition to the British government is extremely common - it’s just often unvoiced. Throughout the entire existence of the government, they’ve had to deal with people attacking them who are only growing more bold. They seem to be getting more organized, more confident - who knows what could happen. Perhaps...a full fledged counter-revolution?
All of this, remember, is just the first year of each faction. There’s still almost nine more left to cover in the future. Maybe the path you think is most blessed is a trojan horse.
Thank you for reading! If you’re interested in Decorum, we’re always looking for new team members. Right now, we’re really in need of new coders and artists who can colourize portraits, so if you think you’d like to join, just message us on the discord!
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2020.05.01 15:58 Chrispytoast123 B984 - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill - DIVISION

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) On the ballot, voters shall select from one of two statements, the statements shall be preceded by the following messages, all of which shall be in both English and Welsh;
(a) “Parliament has decided to give the decision to the people of Wales on the proposals for expanding the powers of the Senedd,” followed by the two statements; (The Electoral commission, can review the text of the question for bias and alter it in any way)
(i) “I agree justice and policing policy should be decided by the Senedd.”
(ii) “I do not agree justice and policing policy should be decided by the Senedd.”
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"
(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise.
(b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities.
(b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job.
(i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect 14 days after the certification on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined.
(i) The “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit.
(b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides.
*4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview\*
(1)- The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys Police
Gwent Police
North Wales Police
South Wales Police
Gwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for.
(b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as;
The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal. The Special Immigration Appeals Commission.
Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service
(b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law
“(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners—
7 must be holders of judicial office,
5 must be lay members, and
(c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers.
(2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office—
(a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal;
(b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court;
(c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member;
(d) 1 must be a circuit judge;
(e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1);
(f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3);
(g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member.
(3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are—
(a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2);
(b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3));
(c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4);
(d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5).
(4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers—
(a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5),
(b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other.
(5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are—
(a)barrister in Wales;
(b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales;
(c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Welsh ministers Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission.
(b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board.
(b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, a Welsh Category Limits Council is hereby established. Its task and governance shall be identical to the provisions of the Independent Sentencing At 2019, with the substitution of Welsh ministers for Lord Chancellor.
(2) The Category Limits Council shall provide the Welsh Category Limits Council with a full report of its work so far.
(a) Advance notice of the publication of guidance after the separation of the legal jurisdictions shall be given to the Welsh Category Limits Council, as well as the guideline in question.
(3) The Welsh Category Limits Council shall prioritize continuity of the guidelines being developed by the Category Limits Council at the time of the legal jurisdiction divergence, and the development of its guidelines after the divergence should attempt to sync with the guidelines of the Category Limits Council until such time as the laws and sentences being reviewed have been sufficiently altered by the Senedd to require different sentences.
(a) The abolition of maximum and minimum sentences shall go into force at the same time as those in England, unless the Government of Wales has determined that sufficient legal divergence between Wales and England has occured between the separation of legal jurisdictions and the “day of abolition”.
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent.
(2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of—
(a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
(b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1)- The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment.
(b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers.
(c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers.
(d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
13 Parliamentary Supremacy
(1) Nothing in this legislation shall be construed as restricting the power of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to make laws for Wales.
(a) It is however recognized that the Parliament ought not to legislate on these newly devolved matters without the consent of the Senedd.
13 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act shall come into force immediately upon Royal Assent, with its provisions being activated by an affirmative vote in the Senedd for this legislation.
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
Independent Sentencing At 2019
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 Sections 136, 137, 139, and 140
This vote shall end on Monday 4th May at 10PM BST.
submitted by Chrispytoast123 to MHOCMP [link] [comments]


2020.04.27 22:10 CountBrandenburg B984 - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill - 3rd Reading

Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act

A
Bill
To
Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote.
1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum
(1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission).
(2) On the ballot, voters shall select from one of two statements, the statements shall be preceded by the following messages, all of which shall be in both English and Welsh;
(a) “Parliament has decided to give the decision to the people of Wales on the proposals for expanding the powers of the Senedd,” followed by the two statements; (The Electoral commission, can review the text of the question for bias and alter it in any way)
(i) “I agree justice and policing policy should be decided by the Senedd.”
(ii) “I do not agree justice and policing policy should be decided by the Senedd.”
(2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"
(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters.
(3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum.
(4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl)
(5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise.
(b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities.
(b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job.
(i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(7) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in favor of the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 shall go into effect 14 days after the certification on the day specified in commencement regulations made by statutory instrument subject to affirmative in the House of Commons and the House of Lords or 3 months after the certification in no such instrument is passed.
(8) If the Chief Counting Officer certifies a majority of the recognized ballots are in opposition to the devolution proposal, Sections 4-11 are immediately considered null and void.
3 Conduct of the Referendum
(1)- Both English and Welsh printed out copies of the proposal to go into force if this resolution passes shall be made available at all polling stations, with the Electoral Commission being authorized to publish additional guidelines around accessibility.
(2) The Electoral Commission shall be entrusted with full discretion (m: Quad) to establish regulations establishing a formal campaign period, with the following non binding recommendations;
(a) There ought to be a “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined.
(i) The “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit.
(b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the “Agree” "Should be devolved" and “Disagree” "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides.
*4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview\*
(1)- The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd.
(2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation.
5 Policing Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) These powers shall not be construed as authority over national agencies and portfolios that enforce laws regardless of legal jurisdiction, such as counter terrorism.
(2) Full control of the following territorial policing jurisdiction is devolved to the Senedd.
Dyfed-Powys Police
Gwent Police
North Wales Police
South Wales Police
Gwent Police & South Wales Police Joint Armed Response Unit
(3) National matters for security remain reserved, but staffing is devolved in the following jurisdictions.
Welsh Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit
(4) Section 136, 137, 139, and 140 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 shall be the framework in which cross jurisdictional powers shall be exercised inside the, and with officers from, Welsh policing jurisdiction.
(5) In the event of reforms to the bureaucratic structure of the Welsh police, elected Police and Crime Commissioners may not lose their role until their current term has expired.
6 Court Devolution
(1)- Control and regulation of the court system within Wales is devolved to the Senedd.
(a) The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom shall remain the final court of appeal for criminal cases and civil cases and will retain its jurisdiction as the final court of appeal for all cases it possesses UK wide jurisdiction for.
(b) This section does not apply to the jurisdiction of bodies set up independent of the traditional court system and with jurisdiction beyond the now extant England and Wales, such as;
The Asylum and Immigration Tribunal. The Special Immigration Appeals Commission.
Employment Tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal.
(2) Past precedent of court cases within the now defunct jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be considered precedent within the Welsh jurisdiction unless the Senedd passes a law directly contradictory.
(3) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the newly created Welsh courts shall be determined by a Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission, the Chairman of which must be a lay member.
(a) A member may not be appointed to the Commission if they are a member of the civil service
(b) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, the composition of the Commision should be as follows, excerpted from standing English and Welsh law
“(1) Of the 14 other Commissioners—
7 must be holders of judicial office,
5 must be lay members, and
(c) 2 must be persons practising or employed as lawyers.
(2) Of the 7 Commissioners who are appointed as holders of judicial office—
(a) 1 must be a Lord Justice of Appeal;
(b) 1 must be a puisne judge of the High Court;
(c) 1 must be a senior tribunal office-holder member;
(d) 1 must be a circuit judge;
(e) 1 must be a district judge of a county court, a District Judge (Magistrates’ Courts) or a person appointed to an office under section 89 of the Senior Courts Act 1981(1);
(f) 1 must be a holder of an office listed in paragraph (3);
(g)1 must be a non-legally qualified judicial member.
(3) The offices referred to in paragraph (2)(f) are—
(a)judge of the First-tier Tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2 to the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007(2);
(b) transferred-in judge of the First-tier Tribunal (see section 31(2) of that Act(3));
(c) Regional Employment Judge appointed under regulation 6(1) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004(4);
(d) Employment Judge (England and Wales) appointed under regulation 8(1) and (3)(a) of those Regulations(5).
(4) Of the 2 Commissioners appointed who are persons practising or employed as lawyers—
(a)each person must hold a qualification listed in paragraph (5),
(b)but they must not hold the same qualification as each other.
(5) The qualifications referred to in paragraph (4) are—
(a)barrister in Wales;
(b)solicitor of the Senior Courts of Wales;
(c) fellow of the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives.
(4) Section 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is amended to read;
“Subsection (1) does not impose any duty which it would be within the legislative competences of the Scottish Parliament or Senedd to impose.”
(5) The Lord Chancellor’s legal roles that relate exclusively to maintenance of the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales shall be split, with the Lord Chancellor retaining all powers for England, and all powers over Wales being transferred to the Welsh ministers.
(6) Until the Senedd determines otherwise, the office of Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is hereby replaced with 2 jurisdictional offices, the Lord Chief Justice of England, which shall be the continuing body, and a newly constituted Lord Chief Justice of Wales.
(a) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall be appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Welsh ministers Welsh Judicial Appointments Commission.
(b) The Lord Chief Justice of Wales shall inherit the powers of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales within the Wales jurisdiction.
7 Legal Profession Devolution
(1) The regulation of legal services and the legal profession is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(2) Those in legal services with previous authorization to practice law in England and Wales shall retain their ability to do so.
(a) This eligibility’s renewal will expire every 2 years, and can be renewed if some in legal services passes a test demonstrating their knowledge of the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(3) Those in the legal service who are authorized to practice law in England for 2 years after this legislation has passed shall have the ability to practice law in Wales.
(a) This ability shall be contingent upon passing a supplemental course and test on the divergences between English and Welsh law that exist at that time, as administered by their professions governing bodies.
(4) The Government of the United Kingdom shall provide the administrative support needed for approved regulators to set up new resources for the Welsh jurisdiction, with new approved regulator status advisedly to be prioritized to bodies that are deemed Welsh set ups of those that are currently approved in England at the time of this legislation’s enactment.
(5) The Legal Services Board shall be renamed to the English Legal Services board and shall have its jurisdiction reduced to England.
(6) The Government of Wales, until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, shall oversee a Welsh Legal Services Board.
(a) The Welsh Legal Services Board shall have the same ability to impose levy’s on Welsh regulators as that of the English Legal Services Board.
(b) Initial staffing and resources shall be allocated from the now extant Legal Services Board in proportion to the amount of the legal profession previously in England and Wales that would now be operating in Wales.
8 Criminal Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass criminal law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland
9 Civil Law Devolution
(1)- The ability to regulate and pass civil law that existed within the legal jurisdiction of England and Wales in Wales is hereby devolved to the Senedd.
(a)- Criminal law is the aspects similar to those already devolved to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
10 Sentencing Continuity
(1) Until such time as the Senedd determines otherwise, a Welsh Category Limits Council is hereby established. Its task and governance shall be identical to the provisions of the Independent Sentencing At 2019, with the substitution of Welsh ministers for Lord Chancellor.
(2) The Category Limits Council shall provide the Welsh Category Limits Council with a full report of its work so far.
(a) Advance notice of the publication of guidance after the separation of the legal jurisdictions shall be given to the Welsh Category Limits Council, as well as the guideline in question.
(3) The Welsh Category Limits Council shall prioritize continuity of the guidelines being developed by the Category Limits Council at the time of the legal jurisdiction divergence, and the development of its guidelines after the divergence should attempt to sync with the guidelines of the Category Limits Council until such time as the laws and sentences being reviewed have been sufficiently altered by the Senedd to require different sentences.
(a) The abolition of maximum and minimum sentences shall go into force at the same time as those in England, unless the Government of Wales has determined that sufficient legal divergence between Wales and England has occured between the separation of legal jurisdictions and the “day of abolition”.
(1) In section 3 of the Independent sentencing Act 2019, herein the 2019 Act, substitute for subsection (1)
(1) The Council shall consider all offences under the laws of England and the laws of Wales and recommend an appropriate lowest category starting point and a highest category starting point.
(2) In section 7 of the 2019 Act substitute for subsection (2);
(2) In England Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force one year after Royal Assent.
(2A) In Wales (2) Sections 1,2, 3, 4 and 6 of this Act comes into force on the day of Royal Assent and Section 5 comes into force on a date appointed in a resolution subject to the affirmative procedure in the Senedd.
(3) In section 2 of 2019 Act, after subsection (5) insert:
(5A) Welsh ministers may appoint a representative to the council to whom to the minister appears to have experience of sentencing policy to speak on his behalf.
(4) In section 2 of the 2019 Act for subsection (2) substitute:
(2) The Council is to consist of—
(a) 9 judicial members appointed by the Lord Chief Justice with the agreement of the Lord Chancellor and Welsh Minister’s for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
(b) 6 non-judicial members appointed by the Lord Chancellor with the agreement of the Lord Chief Justice and Welsh Ministers for a 3 year term that may be renewed no more than twice;
11 Agency Continuity
(1) The provisions within this section shall be in place until such time as the Senned alters them.
(2) United Kingdom Government agencies related to the legal system with jurisdiction in England and Wales shall be split into two jurisdictional agencies, an English version of the agency which shall be the continuity organization, and a new Welsh version of the agency that shall be subordinate to the Welsh Government.
(a) The new Welsh version of the agency shall have the same powers, duties, and authority to act in Wales as its predecessor organization had in the now extant England and Wales.
(3) Initial staffing and resources of the new Welsh organizations shall be allocated from the now extant agencies in proportion to the amount of the organization previously in England and Wales that would now be required to operate in Wales at similar capacity.
12 Enactment
(1)- The Welsh Ministers and the Secretary of State for Wales are authorized to make such regulations and orders as necessary to clarify and effectively enforce the provisions of Sections 4-11 .
(2) Enactment of laws related to these powers shall go through the same process as current statutory procedures for the passage of Senedd legislation.
(3) Unless otherwise altered by the Senedd, the Government of Wales, as the executive body determined by the Senedd, shall have the power to make orders and regulations related to these newly devolved competencies equal to the power of national government ministers who previously held posts in these areas.
(4) The Parliament of the United Kingdom shall provide funding for the Welsh Government to administer these newly devolved competencies until the Senedd passes the first budget following the devolution provisions coming into force funding these new powers.
(5) One year following enactment of the devolution provisions, the Secretary of State must produce a report on the implementation of these devolution provisions, including, but not limited to;
(a) What orders and regulations were made to ensure the legislations successful enactment.
(b) The impacts of the newly devolved powers.
(c) The extent to which the Senedd and the Welsh Government engaged with these new powers.
(d) Recommended changes to the law in order to increase the effectiveness of the new legal and policing jurisdiction.
13 Parliamentary Supremacy
(1) Nothing in this legislation shall be construed as restricting the power of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to make laws for Wales.
(a) It is however recognized that the Parliament ought not to legislate on these newly devolved matters without the consent of the Senedd.
13 Commencement, full extent and title
1)- This Act may be cited as the Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020
2) This Act shall come into force immediately upon Royal Assent, with its provisions being activated by an affirmative vote in the Senedd for this legislation.
2) This Act comes in to force once a vote in the Senedd has been held on a motion that states 'The Welsh Parliament supports and approves the implementation of the Welsh Policing and Justice Devolution Referendum Act.’
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales.
This bill was written by the Rt Hon. The Lord Houston MBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement.
Independent Sentencing At 2019
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 Sections 136, 137, 139, and 140
This reading shall end on Thursday 30th April at 10PM BST.
submitted by CountBrandenburg to MHOC [link] [comments]


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